Leishmaniasis is one of the chronic debilitating vector-borne diseases caused by obligate intracellular protozoa. The global burden of disease although not increasing but potential risk of spread is there. At least 20 species of Leishmania are pathogenic to human beings. The transmission is from female sandfly through a blood meal. The disease pathogenesis is dependent on parasite and host mechanism—primarily cell-mediated immunity. The three common forms are visceral, cutaneous, and mucocutaneous. The diagnostic tests are mainly based on aspiration from the spleen or bone marrow. The use of K39 antibodies is the best serodiagnostic test. Antimonial, amphotericin B, miltefosine, and paromomycin are the drugs used to treat leishmaniasis. Amphotericin therapy shows the response within 7 to 10 days in most subjects, and 2 weeks of therapy is sufficient. However, those going into relapse need new treatment regimes. There is a definite benefit of combination therapy. However, there is still no breakthrough on a vaccine for prophylaxis.
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