Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by several clinical features and pathological responses involving the respiratory system primarily. Infections (viral), sepsis, and massive transfusion are the commonest causes of ARDS during pregnancy. The majority of them recover with noninvasive ventilatory (NIV) support. NIV is safe in pregnancy provided the center is experienced and has a protocolized patient care pathway. Parturients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation are best managed in experienced centers. PaO2/FiO2 targets are higher in parturients compared to nonpregnant patients. Permissive hypercapnia is not a safe option in pregnancy. In severe ARDS with refractory hypoxemia, prone ventilation is a safe option. However, it has to be done in experienced centers. Venovenous ECMO is a safe alternative option in pregnant women with refractory hypoxemia, and delivery has been prolonged to a safe viable age on ECMO. The decision to deliver and the mode of delivery have to be a multidisciplinary decision; primary criterion is maternal survival. Postdelivery, establishing maternal bonding while in ventilatory support facilitates early weaning and minimizes lactation failure.
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