Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 26 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Visitors in the Intensive Care Unit in the COVID Era

Santiswaroop Pattanaik

Keywords : Visitation in intensive care unit, Visiting policy, Visitors to patients

Citation Information : Pattanaik S. Visitors in the Intensive Care Unit in the COVID Era. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022; 26 (3):251-252.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24160

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-03-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


  1. Donald M Berwick. What ‘patient-centered’ should mean: confessions of an extremist [Health Affairs 28, no. 4 (2009):w555–w565 (published online 19 May 2009; 10.1377/hlthaff.28.4.w555)].
  2. Rosa RG, Tonietto TF, da Silva DB, Gutierres FA, Ascoli AM, Madeira LC, et al. ICU Visits Study Group Investigators. Effectiveness and Safety of an Extended ICU Visitation Model for Delirium Prevention: A Before and After Study. Crit Care Med 2017;45(10):1660–1667. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002588.
  3. Malacarne P, Corini M, Petri D. Health care-associated infections and visiting policy in an intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control 2011;39(10):898–900. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.02.018.
  4. Fumagalli S, Boncinelli L, Lo Nostro A, Valoti P, Baldereschi G, Di Bari M, et al. Reduced cardiocirculatory complications with unrestrictive visiting policy in an intensive care unit: results from a pilot, randomized trial. Circulation 2006;113(7):946–952. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.572537.
  5. Rosa RG, Falavigna M, da Silva DB, Sganzerla D, Santos MMS, Kochhann R, et al. ICU Visits Study Group Investigators and the Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network (BRICNet). Effect of Flexible Family Visitation on Delirium Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: The ICU Visits Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 2019;322(3):216–228. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2019.8766.
  6. Westphal GA, Moerschberger MS, Vollmann DD, Inácio AC, Machado MC, Sperotto G, et al. Effect of a 24-h extended visiting policy on delirium in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2018;44(6): 968–970. DOI: 10.1007/s00134-018-5153-5.
  7. Nassar Junior AP, Besen BAMP, Robinson CC, Falavigna M, Teixeira C, Rosa RG. Flexible Versus Restrictive Visiting Policies in ICUs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Crit Care Med 2018;46(7): 1175–1180. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003155.
  8. Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, Arich C, Brivet F, Brun F, et al. Family participation in care to the critically ill: opinions of families and staff. Intensive Care Med 2003;29(9):1498–1504. DOI: 10.1007/s00134-003-1904-y.
  9. Kalinka Noordermeer, Tom A Rijpstra, David Newhall, Aline JM Pelle, Nardo JM van der Meer,”Visiting Policies in the Adult Intensive Care Units in the Netherlands: Survey among ICU Directors”, International Scholarly Research Notices. Article ID 137045, 2013. Available from:
  10. Kosovali BD, Mutlu NM, Gonen CC, Peker TT, Yavuz A, Soyal OB, et al. Does hospitalisation of a patient in the intensive care unit cause anxiety and does restriction of visiting cause depression for the relatives of these patients during COVID-19 pandemic? Int J Clin Pract 2021;75(10):e14328. DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.14328.
  11. Rose L, Yu L, Casey J, Cook A, Metaxa V, Pattison N, et al. Communication and Virtual Visiting for Families of Patients in Intensive Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A UK National Survey. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021;18(10):1685–1692. DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202012-1500OC.
  12. Khaleghparast S, Joolaee S, Ghanbari B, Maleki M, Peyrovi H, Bahrani N. A Review of Visiting Policies in Intensive Care Units. Glob J Health Sci 2015;8(6):267–276. DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n6p267.
  13. Chanchalani G, Arora N, Nasa P, Sodhi K, Al Bahrani MJ, Al Tayar A, et al. Visiting and Communication Policy in Intensive Care Units during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Survey from South Asia and the Middle East. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(3):268–275.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.