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VOLUME 26 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Blood Urea Nitrogen/Albumin Ratio and Mortality Risk in Patients with COVID-19

Swarnima Singh, Kunal Singh

Keywords : Blood urea nitrogen/albumin ratio, COVID-19, COVID-19 mortality, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, Hypoalbuminemia

Citation Information : Singh S, Singh K. Blood Urea Nitrogen/Albumin Ratio and Mortality Risk in Patients with COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022; 26 (5):624-629.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24150

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Introduction: We researched blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and their ratio (BAR), and compared them with C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and computed tomography severity scores (CT-SS), to predict inhospital mortality. Methods: One-hundred and thirty-one coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-confirmed patients brought to the emergency department (ED) were dispensed to the survivor or non-survivor group, in light of inhospital mortality. Information on age, gender, complaints, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, and outcome were gathered from the patient\'s record files. Results: The median BUN, mean total protein, mean albumin, median BAR, median creatinine, median CRP, and median D-dimer were recorded. CT-SS were utilized in categorizing the patient as mild, moderate, and severe. Inhospital mortality occurred in 42 (32.06%) patients (non-survivor group) and did not occur in 89 (67.94%) patients (survivor group). The median BUN (mg/dL) and BAR (mg/g) values were significantly raised in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group [BUN: 23.48 (7.51–62.75) and 20.66 (4.07–74.67), respectively (p = 0.009); BAR: 8.33 mg/g (2.07–21.86) and 6.11 mg/g (1.26–23.33); (p = 0.0003)]. The mean albumin levels (g/dL) in the non-survivor group were significantly lower than in the survivor group [2.96 ± 0.35 and 3.27 ± 0.35, respectively (p <0.0001)]. Albumin with an odd\'s ratio of 6.14 performed the best in predicting inhospital mortality, followed by D-dimer (4.98). BAR and CRP had similar outcome of 3.75; BUN showed an OR of 3.13 at the selected cutoff value. Conclusion: The BUN, albumin, and BAR were found to be dependable predictors of inhospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, with albumin (hypoalbuminemia) performing even better.


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