Patient safety is an important step in providing high-quality health care. Every intensive care unit (ICU) is unique and its needs would be different; it is thus necessary to build a safety culture based on local and cultural characteristics. Various measures such as regular training, the use of bundles of care, and a blame-free environment can promote patient safety in ICUs. These measures are simple to implement even in resource-limiting settings and can go a long way in improving patient outcomes in our country.
Topeli A, Laghi F, Tobin MJ. Effect of closed unit policy and appointing an intensivist in a developing country. Crit Care Med 2005;33(2):299–306. DOI: 10.1097.ccm.0000153414.41232.90.
Hall JB. Advertisements for ourselves: Let's be cautious about interpreting outcome studies of critical care services. Crit Care Med 1999;27(2):229–230. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-199902000-00001.
Divatia JV, Amin PR, Ramakrishnan N, Kapadia FN, Todi S, Sahu S, et al. Intensive care in India: The Indian intensive care case mix and practice patterns study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2016;20(4):216–225. DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.180042.
Divatia JV, Mehta Y, Govil D, Zirpe K, Amin PR, Ramakrishnan N, et al. Intensive care in India in 2018–2019: The second Indian intensive care case mix and practice patterns study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(10):1093–1107. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23965.
Hanson CW 3rd, Deutschman CS, Anderson HL 3rd, Reilly PM, Behringer EC, Schwab CW, et al. Effects of an organized critical care service on outcomes and resource utilization: A cohort study. Crit Care Med 1999;27(2):270–274. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-199902000-00030.
Parikh CR, Karnad DR. Quality, cost, and outcome of intensive care in a public hospital in Bombay, India. Crit Care Med 1999;27(9):1754–1759. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-199909000-00009.
Basuni EM, Bayoumi MM. Improvement critical care patient safety: Using nursing staff development strategies, at Saudi Arabia. Global J Health Sci 2015;7(2):335–343. DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n2p335.
Matsushima A, Kawanami M, Fujimi S, Inadome N, Kubo N, Yoshioka T. Effects of infection control bundle to prevent nosocomial infection in the ICU. Crit Care 2015;19(Suppl. 1):P83. DOI: 10.1186/cc14163.
Pronovost P. Interventions to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU: The Keystone Intensive Care Unit Project. Am J Infect Control 2008;36(10):S171.e1–sS171.e5. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2008.10.008.
Byrnes MC, Schuerer DJ, Schallom ME, Sona CS, Mazuski JE, Taylor BE, et al. Implementation of a mandatory checklist of protocols and objectives improves compliance with a wide range of evidence-based intensive care unit practices. Crit Care Med 2009;37(10):2775–2781. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181a96379.
World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care: First global patient safety challenge clean care is safer care. 2009. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44102/9789241597906_eng.pdf;jsessionid=8C7477D7E596160AE21FA11652E3C93C?sequence=1.
Rothschild JM, Landrigan CP, Cronin JW, Kaushal R, Lockley SW, Burdick E, et al. The critical care safety study: The incidence and nature of adverse events and serious medical errors in intensive care. Crit Care Med 2005;33(8):1694–1700. DOI: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000171609.91035.bd.
Leape LL, Cullen DJ, Clapp MD, Burdick E, Demonaco HJ, Erickson JI, et al. Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in the intensive care unit. JAMA 1999;282(3):267–270. DOI: 10.1001/jama.282.3.267.
Reader TW, Cuthbertson BH. Teamwork and team training in the ICU: Where do the similarities with aviation end? Crit Care 2011;15(6):313. DOI: 10.1186/cc10353.
Petschnig W, Haslinger–Baumann E. Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS): A fundamental component of risk management in health care systems to enhance patient safety. Saf Health 2017;3:9. DOI: 10.1186/s40886-017-0060-y.