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VOLUME 28 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2024 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Effects of Glycemic Variability in Critically Ill Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Observational Study

Emerson Boschi, Gilberto Friedman, Rafael B Moraes

Keywords : Coronavirus 2019, Critical care, Diabetes mellitus, Glycemic variability, Hyperglycemia, Respiratory distress syndrome

Citation Information : Boschi E, Friedman G, Moraes RB. Effects of Glycemic Variability in Critically Ill Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Observational Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2024; 28 (4):381-386.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24688

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-03-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim and background: Hyperglycemia is considered an adaptive metabolic manifestation of stress and is associated with poor outcomes. Herein, we analyzed the association between glycemic variability (GV) and hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and the association between GV and mechanical ventilation (MV), ICU stay, length of hospital stays, renal replacement therapy (RRT), hypoglycemia, nosocomial infections, insulin use, and corticosteroid class. Materials and methods: In this retrospective observational study, we collected information on blood glucose levels during the first 10 days of hospitalization in a cohort of ICU patients with COVID-19 and its association with outcomes. Results: In 239 patients, an association was observed between GV and hospital mortality between the first and last quartiles among patients without diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 3.78; confidence interval, 1.24–11.5]. A higher GV was associated with a greater need for RRT (p = 0.002), regular insulin (p < 0.001), and episodes of hypoglycemia (p < 0.001). Nosocomial infections were associated with intermediate GV quartiles (p = 0.02). The corticosteroid class had no association with GV (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Glycemic variability was associated with high mortality in patients with COVID-19 and observed in the subgroup of patients without diabetes. Clinical significance: Glycemic control in critically ill patients remains controversial and hyperglycemia is associated with worse outcomes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent comorbidities in patients with COVID-19. In addition, they require corticosteroids due to pulmonary involvement, representing a challenge and an opportunity to better understand how glycemic changes can influence the outcome of these patients.


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