Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2011 | July | Volume 15 | Issue 3


Antara Mallampalli, Hrishikesh S. Kulkarni, Karishma R. Kulkarni, Shubhangi R. Parkar, Dilip R. Karnad, Kalpalatha K. Guntupalli

Comparison of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in relatives of ICU patients in an American and an Indian public hospital

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:10] [Pages No:147 - 156]

Keywords: Anxiety, depression, family, psychological, stress disorders, stress, traumatic

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84891  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: An intensive care unit (ICU) admission of a patient causes considerable stress among relatives. Whether this impact differs among populations with differing sociocultural factors is unknown. Aims: The aim was to compare the psychological impact of an ICU admission on relatives of patients in an American and Indian public hospital. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out in ICUs of two tertiary care hospitals, one each in major metropolitan cities in the USA and India. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 relatives visiting patients were verbally administered a questionnaire between 48 hours and 72 hours of ICU admission that included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) for post-traumatic stress response. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests. Results: Relatives in the Indian ICU had more anxiety symptoms (median HADS-A score 11 [inter-quartile range 9-13] vs. 4 [1.5-6] in the American cohort; P<0.0001), more depression symptoms (BDI-II score 14 [8.5-19] vs. 6 [1.5-10.5], P<0.0001) but a comparable post-traumatic stress response (IES-R score>30). 55% of all relatives had an incongruous perception regarding “change in the patient′s condition” compared to the objective change in severity of illness. “Change in worry” was incongruous compared to the “perception of improvement of the patient′s condition” in 78% of relatives. Conclusions: Relatives of patients in the Indian ICU had greater anxiety and depression symptoms compared to those in the American cohort, and had significant differences in factors that may be associated with this psychological impact. Both groups showed substantial discordance between the perceived and objective change in severity of illness.


Abhijit Bhattacharya, Ranju Singh, Homay Vajifdar, Nishant Kumar

Preoperative predictors of mortality in adult patients with perforation peritonitis

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:157 - 163]

Keywords: Blood sugar, blood urea, delay, duration of peritonitis, Mannheim peritonitis index, perforation peritonitis, mortality, pH, serum creatinine, serum lactate levels, standard base excess

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84897  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: There is paucity of data from India regarding the etiology, prognostic indicators, morbidity, and mortality patterns of perforation peritonitis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the predictors of mortality, preoperatively, for risk stratification of the patients and institution of an early goal-directed therapy. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients presenting with perforation peritonitis, in the age group of 14-70 years scheduled for emergency laparotomy were studied prospectively. The parameters studied were age and sex of the patients, associated co-morbidities, duration of symptoms, delay in initiating surgical intervention, and preoperative biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin, random blood sugar, blood urea, serum creatinine, pH, base excess, and serum lactate levels. In-hospital mortality was taken as the outcome. Results: We encountered a mortality of 17.8% in our study. Multiple linear (enter) regression identified the age, duration of symptoms, preoperative blood sugar levels, blood urea, serum creatinine levels, Mannheim Peritonitis Index, and the delay in instituting surgical intervention as independent predictors of mortality. Hyperlactatemia, acidosis and base excess were not found to be associated with mortality. Conclusion: Routine biochemical investigations, delay in presentation, and surgical intervention are good predictors of mortality. Recognizing such patients early may help the anesthesiologists in risk stratification and in providing an early goal-directed therapy.


Uma Chaudhary, Ritu Aggarwal, Deep Gagneja

Changing trend of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacilli isolated from lower respiratory tract of ICU patients: A 5-year study

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:164 - 167]

Keywords: Gram-negative bacilli, intensive care unit, resistance trend

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84900  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the most frequent infections among patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Aim: To track the resistance rate among the causative agents causing LRTI in the ICU patients. Design and Settings: This is a retrospective study done in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Transtracheal or bronchial aspirates from 2776 patients admitted to the ICU were cultured and identified, and antibiotic sensitivity was performed by standard methods. Results: Of 2776 specimens, 1233 (44.41%) isolates were recovered, of which 1123 (91.07%) were gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and 110 (8.92%) were gram-positive organisms. From 2004 to 2009, Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained the most common pathogen. In phase I, high level of resistance (79-98%) was observed against all GNB. During phase II increasing trend in resistance to cephalosporins and declining trend in resistance to aminoglycosides against most GNB were observed. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more than three drugs) was observed in 83% of total isolates. Conclusions: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant pathogens causing LRTI in ICU. The increasing trend of resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems in gram-negative organisms is very disturbing. Judicious use of antimicrobial agents is essential to prevent the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the ICU.


Omender Singh, Rameshwar Pandey, Bhupesh Uniyal

Comparing influence of intermittent subglottic secretions drainage with/without closed suction systems on the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:168 - 172]

Keywords: Closed suction system, intermittent subglottic drainage, ventilator-associated pneumonia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84902  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Intermittent subglottic drainage (ISD) of secretions is recommended for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) as it reduces microaspiration from the area around the cuff. Poor suction techniques can contribute to VAP, hence closed suction system (CSS) may have theoretical benefit in VAP prevention. Combination of these two techniques may provide added advantage. Aims: To study the influence of ISD with/without CSS on the incidence of VAP. Materials and Methods: Data from 311 patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 72 hours were collected retrospectively. They were divided into four groups as follows: group A, no intervention; group B, only CSS; group C, only ISD; and group D, ISD with CSS. These groups were compared with respect to incidence of VAP, duration of MV, length of ICU and hospital stay and ICU mortality. Results: Patients in the four groups were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio and admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores. Incidence of VAP per 1000 ventilator days in groups A, B, C, and D were 25, 23.9, 15.7 and 14.3, respectively (P=0.04). There was no significant difference in the duration of MV (P=0.33), length of ICU (P=0.55) and hospital stay (P=0.36) and ICU mortality (P=0.9) among the four groups. Conclusions: ISD of secretions reduces the incidence of VAP. CSS alone or in combination with ISD has no significant effect on VAP incidence. Hence, ISD may be recommended for VAP prevention, but indications other than VAP prevention should determine the type of the suction system.


Pranay Wal, Ankita Wal, Umeshwar Pandey, Awani K. Rai, Anil Bhandari

Genetic predisposition to oxcarbazepine induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:173 - 175]

Keywords: Hypersensitivity, oxcarbazepine, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84904  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare immunologic reaction that may involve skin or various mucosal surfaces. The etiology may range from multiple pharmacologic agents to viral infections. Associated findings can range from minimal skin and mucosal involvement to extensive dermal exfoliation, nephritis, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and multiple serologic abnormalities. We report a female patient of 38 years with a history of drug allergy who was administered oxcarbazepine for the management of right partial bronchial seizure due to left parasagittal mass lesion following which she developed papular rashes all over the body and diagnosed as SJS. Although carbamazepine (CBZ) is the most common cause of SJS, a new anticonvulsant, oxcarbazepine, which is structurally related to CBZ, has been shown to induce SJS.


Syed Ahmed Zaki, Preeti Shanbag, Leena Nagotkar, Anupama Mauskar, Chaya A. Kumar

Fulminant intracranial hypertension due to cryptococcal meningitis in a child with nephrotic syndrome

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:176 - 178]

Keywords: Cryptococcal meningitis, intracranial hypertension, nephrotic syndrome

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84905  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cryptococcus neoformans has a worldwide distribution. Meningoencephalitis is the most common manifestation of cryptococcosis. The outcome of a patient with cryptococcal infection depends on the immune status of the host. Patients with nephrotic syndrome are particularly susceptible to cryptococcal infection not only due to innate changes in their immune system but also because of the immunosuppressive agents used in the treatment. We report an 8-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome, who developed cryptococcal meningitis and died of fulminant intracranial hypertension.


Rucha S. Dagaonkar, Tiyas Sen, Zarir F. Udwadia, Mukesh B. Desai

Primary immune deficiency in the intensive care unit: It is never too late to diagnose and treat

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:179 - 181]

Keywords: Adult primary immune deficiency, common variable immune deficiency, intravenous immunoglobulin, late onset common immunodeficiency, non-resolving pneumonia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84903  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs), a heterogeneous group of primary immune deficiencies, can present at all age. Our patient with a hitherto undiagnosed CVID, symptomatic since middle ages, presented with severe pneumonia. Specific management of his CVID in addition to standard therapy was life-saving.


Vivek B. Kute, Hargovind L. Trivedi, Pankaj R. Shah, Manoj R. Gumber, A.V. Vanikar, Kamal R. Goplani

Successful treatment of refractory hypotension, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute kidney injury after an overdose of amlodipine

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:182 - 184]

Keywords: Amlodipine overdose, calcium, insulin, refractory hypotension

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84901  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Treatment of patients with amlodipine overdose remains challenging. We describe a case of successful treatment of refractory hypotension, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute kidney injury after an intoxication with 250 mg of amlodipine. Marked improvement in all hemodynamic parameters was noted with combination of fluids, inotropes, low-dose calcium, low dose insulin, mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. All available information on overdose of amlodipine is limited to case reports and series. Prospective trial on the use of these agents is required to define its role as the first-line treatment in amlodipine, a calcium channel blockers overdose.


Lokesh Kumar, Girija Rath, Aanchal Sharma, Sarita Mohapatra, Uma P. Padhy

Neurocysticercosis: Acute presentation and intensive care management of two cases

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:185 - 187]

Keywords: Cerebral edema, intensive care management, intracranial pressure, neurocysticercosis, seizures

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84899  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a common helminthic infestation in developing countries, may cause acquired epilepsy and neurological morbidities. Acute symptomatic seizure is the most common manifestation. The other clinical conditions include headache, hydrocephalus, chronic meningitis, focal neurological deficits, and psychological disorders. Altered sensorium and raised intracranial pressure (ICP) may require ventilatory support in an intensive care unit (ICU). Definitive diagnosis is made by identification of parasites in tissues or by a radiological demonstration of the scolex in cystic lesions. Antiepileptic drugs are used to control seizures after NCC. Steroids are generally administered along with antihelminthics, in order to control the edema and intracranial hypertension that may occur as a result of antiparasitic medications. In patients with intracranial hypertension, the priority is to manage the ICP before considering other treatment options. Antiparasitic drug treatment is never the mainstay of treatment, especially in the setting of elevated ICP. Here, we present the ICU management of two such cases.


George M. Varghese, Pushpa Eapen, Susanne Abraham

Ecthyma gangrenosum of a single limb

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:188 - 189]

Keywords: Ecthyma gangrenosum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, single limb

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84898  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin manifestation of systemic sepsis commonly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with neutropenia or underlying immune deficiency. Although the usual outcome is poor, early recognition and appropriate systemic antibiotic treatment can lead to successful outcome. We report a case of a previously healthy lady with no apparent immune deficiency or neutropenia who had ecthyma gangrenosum of left lower limb in which the arterial line was placed.


Kapil Borawake, Atul Wagh, Swati Dole

Dengue encephalitis

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:190 - 193]

Keywords: Bilateral thalamic involvement, dengue encephalitis, dengue fever

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84896  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


We report a case of dengue fever with features of encephalitis. The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed by the serum antibodies to dengue and the presence of a dengue antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid. This patient had characteristic magnetic resonance imaging brain findings, mainly involving the bilateral thalami, with hemorrhage. Dengue is not primarily a neurotropic virus and encephalopathy is a common finding in Dengue. Hence various other etiological possibilities were considered before concluding this as a case of Dengue encephalitis. This case explains the importance of considering the diagnosis of dengue encephalitis in appropriate situations.


Viktor Rosival

Dangers of very low blood pH

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:194 - 194]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84887  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Reza Yazdani, Ashkan Tabibzadeh, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Tahereh Khorgoei

Hot climate and elderly surgical patients

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:194 - 195]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84888  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Ajay Chowdhary, Jaishree Bogra

Chest radiograph in subclavian vein cannulation

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:195 - 196]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84889  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Viroj Wiwanitkit

Electrolytes assessed by point-of-care testing

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:196 - 196]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84890  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Authors' reply

Binila Chacko, John Victor Peter, Shalom Patole, Jude Joseph Fleming, Ratnasamy Selvakumar

Authors′ reply

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:196 - 197]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/ijccm-15-3-196  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Viroj Wiwanitkit

Serum procalcitonin in sepsis

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:197 - 197]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84893  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Prathiba Chandershekar

Fatal airway obstruction following arterial trauma during internal jugular venous cannulation - Lessons to be learned

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:197 - 198]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84894  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Syed Ahmed Zaki, Vijay Lad

Acute multifocal dystonic reaction: An unusual presentation of vitamin D-deficient rickets

[Year:2011] [Month:July] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:198 - 200]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.84895  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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