Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2011 | October | Volume 15 | Issue 4


K Krishnakumar, P. P. Saramma, P. K. Dash, P. S. Sarma

Alcohol-based hand rub and ventilator-associated pneumonia after elective neurosurgery: An interventional study

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:203 - 208]

Keywords: Alcohol-based hand rub, hand hygiene, neurosurgical, tracheobronchial colonization, ventilator-associated pneumonia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92069  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Interventional studies on the effect of alcohol-based hand rub on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) among neurosurgical patients are scarce. Aim: To observe the effect of alcohol-based hand rub on tracheobronchial colonization and VAP after elective neurosurgical procedures. Materials and Methods: An interventional study using a “before-after” design in a tertiary care center in Kerala. Two 9-month study periods were compared; between these periods, an infection control protocol incorporating an alcohol-based hand rub was implemented for a period of 3 months and continued thereafter. Consecutive patients who required mechanical ventilation after neurosurgery between January and September 2006 and 2007, respectively, were included. Outcome measures included VAP rate, tracheobronchial colonization rate, profile of microorganisms and patient survival. Results: A total of 352 patients were on mechanical ventilator for a varying period of 1-125 days. The patients in the control and intervention groups were similar with regard to sex, age and type of neurosurgery. Tracheobronchial colonization was seen in 86 (48.6%) of 177 in the control group and 73 (41.7%) of 175 among the intervention group (P = 0.195). The VAP rates in the control and intervention groups were 14.03 and 6.48 per 1000 ventilator days (P = 0.08). The predominant organisms causing VAP and tracheobronchial colonization were Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, in both groups. Patient survival rates were 87.6% (control) and 92% (intervention). Conclusion: Clinical results indicated a better outcome, showing a reduction in tracheobronchial colonization rate and VAP rate, although this was not statistically significant.


Anupam Shrivastava, Manender Kumar Singla

Impact of advanced cardiac life support training program on the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a tertiary care hospital

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:209 - 212]

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support, advanced cardiac life support

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92070  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Guidelines on performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been published from time to time, and formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Very few data are available in world literature highlighting the impact of these trainings on CPR outcome. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the American Heart Association (AHA)-certified basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) provider course on the outcomes of CPR in our hospital. Materials and Methods: An AHA-certified BLS and ACLS provider training programme was conducted in our hospital in the first week of October 2009, in which all doctors in the code blue team and intensive care units were given training. The retrospective study was performed over an 18-month period. All in-hospital adult cardiac arrest victims in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (January 2009 to September 2009) and the post-BLS/ACLS training period (October 2009 to June 2010) were included in the study. We compared the outcomes of CPR between these two study periods. Results: There were a total of 627 in-hospital cardiac arrests, 284 during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period and 343 during the post-BLS/ACLS training period. In the pre-BLS/ACLS training period, 52 patients (18.3%) had return of spontaneous circulation, compared with 97 patients (28.3%) in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (P < 0.005). Survival to hospital discharge was also significantly higher in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (67 patients, 69.1%) than in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (12 patients, 23.1%) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Formal certified BLS and ACLS training of healthcare professionals leads to definitive improvement in the outcome of CPR.


Virendra C. Patil, Harsha V. Patil, M. N. Ramteerthkar, R. D. Kulkarni

Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:11] [Pages No:213 - 223]

Keywords: Catheter-related infection, catheter-associated infection, semiquantitative culture

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92074  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs) and to identify the factors influencing it. So far, there are very few studies that have been conducted on CRBSI in the intensive care unit in India. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) over a period of 1 year from January to December 2004. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients with indwelling central venous catheters of age group between 20 and 75 years were included. The catheters were cultured using the standard semiquantitative culture (SQC) method. Statistical analysis used SPSS-10 version statistical software. Results: A total of 54 CVC catheters with 319 catheter days were included in this study. Of 54 patients with CVCs studied for bacteriology, 39 (72.22%) catheters showed negative SQCs and also negative blood cultures. A total of 15 (27.77%) catheters were positive on SQC, of which 10 (18.52%) were with catheter-associated infection and four (7.41%) were with catheter-associated bacteremia; the remaining one was a probable catheter-associated bacteremia. CRIs were high among catheters that were kept in situ for more than 3 days and emergency procedures where two or more attempts were required for catheterization (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis of covariance duration of catheter in situ for >3 days, inexperienced venupucturist, more number of attempts and emergency CVC were associated with more incidence of CVCBSIs, with P <0.02. The duration of catheter in situ was negatively correlated (-0.53) and number of attempts required to put CVC was positively correlated (+0.39) with incidence of CVCBSIs. Sixty-five percent of the isolates belonged to the CONS group (13/20). Staphylococcus epidermidis showed maximum susceptibility to amikacin, doxycycline and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid and was susceptible to vancomycin (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Escherichia coli was susceptible to amikacin and cefotaxime. Conclusions: The overall incidence of CRI was 27.77% (15/54). Catheter-associated BSIs were 47.31 per 1000 catheter-days. CRI was low in the catheters inserted by the experienced venipuncturists, elective procedure and CVC kept in situ for ≤3 days. S. epidermidis was the most common isolate.


Avinash Aravantagi, Kamakshya P. Patra, Suman Shekar, L Keith Scott

Pumpless arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal: A novel simplified strategy for severe asthma in children

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:224 - 226]

Keywords: Arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal, extracorporeal life support, severe asthma

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92078  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Status asthmaticus unresponsive to pharmacotherapy is conventionally managed with mechanical ventilation, which has its inherent challenges due to barotrauma, dynamic hyperinflation and autopositive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used as a last resort in respiratory failure due to refractory asthma; however, it entails many complications. In contrast, arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal (AVCO 2 R) is a novel strategy that has been shown to be highly effective in adults with acute respiratory failure. Only one pediatric case series of pediatric asthma managed with AVCO2 R have been published so far. We herein report a case of severe asthma in a 9-year-old boy who developed severe hypercapnia (Pco2 97 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.09) despite being on mechanical ventilation. Within 4 h of initiation of AVCO2 R, PCo2 drastically reduced to near-normal levels. He was discharged on day 9 of hospital stay without any complications.


Mónica Mourelo, Rita Galeiras, David Freire, Miguel Álvarez, José L. Díaz, Teresa García

Postpartum amaurosis in a woman with severe preeclampsia

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:227 - 229]

Keywords: Blindness, hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92077  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The maternal and perinatal fetal prognosis of preeclampsia depends on the gestational age of the fetus at onset, the severity of the disease, the quality of care, and the presence of pre-existent medical conditions. One of the uncommon effects of severe preeclampsia on the eye is sudden loss of vision. The present case report is of a woman with severe preeclampsia exacerbated by delivery that coursed with difficult-to-control arterial hypertension and reversible cortical amaurosis without impaired consciousness or seizures.


Veena R. Shah, Guruprasad P. Bhosale, Beena K. Parikh

Anti-thymocyte globulin induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema during renal transplantation

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:230 - 232]

Keywords: Anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, renal transplantation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92076  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE) is a clinical syndrome characterized by simultaneous presence of severe hypoxemia, bilateral alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph, without evidence of left atrial hypertension/congestive heart failure/fluid overload. The diagnosis of drugrelated NCPE relies upon documented exclusion of other causes of NCPE like gastric aspiration, sepsis, trauma, negative pressure pulmonary edema. We describe a 28year-old, 50 kg male with ASA risk III posted for laparoscopic renal transplantation, who developed NCPE after 4 hours of administration of rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (ATG). He was successfully treated with mechanical ventilatory support and adjuvant therapy. This report emphasizes that this fatal complication may occur with use of ATG.


T. K. Dutta, A. S. Praveen Kumar, Deepak Amalnath

Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:233 - 235]

Keywords: Cartap hydrochloride, N-acetyl cysteine, nereistoxin, pesticide, respiratory failure

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92075  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.


Sumit Sinha, Babita Gupta, Pramendra Agrawal, Nita D′souza

Facial and spinal impalement injury: An airway challenge

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:236 - 237]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92071  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Babita Gupta, Pramendra Agrawal, Nita D′souza

An uncommon cause of intraoperative airleak

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:237 - 238]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92072  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Syed Ahmed Zaki, Vijay Lad

Concurrent infection of dengue fever and hepatitis A infection: A case report

[Year:2011] [Month:October] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:238 - 240]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.92073  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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