Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2012 | July | Volume 16 | Issue 3


Rahul Sharma, Malkit Singh, Neelam Taneja, Meera Sharma, Pramod K. Gupta, Jatinder K Rana

Comparative efficacy evaluation of disinfectants routinely used in hospital practice: India

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:123 - 129]

Keywords: Disinfectant, evaluation, hospital practice

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102067  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare practically achieved disinfection efficacy of some locally available disinfectants on surfaces and infectious microbiological hospital waste. Materials and Methods: Seven disinfectants were tested at concentrations recommended by manufacturers on rough and smooth surfaces that were contaminated experimentally by locally circulating isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, standard isolate of Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Reduction in microbial counts before and after surface disinfection was expressed as log reduction. A very heavy microbial waste load was simulated by immersing culture plates with heavy microbial growth in disinfectants. Daily, a sample of disinfectant was taken and subjected to in-use test. Results: The highest average log reduction of test microbes on the rough surface was given by DesNet (5.05) and Bacillocid special (5.02). A comparable average log reduction of test microbes on a smooth steel surface was noted (5.68, 5.67, 5.50) for Lysol, Bacillocid sp. and DesNet, respectively. In the discard jars, Bacillocid special worked satisfactorily for 4 days, DesNet for 3 days and Hi-giene Germitol for 1 day. The remainder of the disinfectants failed in the in-use test on Day 1. Phenolics, although widely used in our settings, may not be as good surface disinfectants as newer formulations like DesNet and Bacillocid special. Conclusions: Newer quaternary ammonium compounds and aldehyde formulations were found to be the best disinfectants for disinfection of heavy contamination.


Leena Anthony, Chanda Kulkarni

Patterns of poisoning and drug overdosage and their outcome among in-patients admitted to the emergency medicine department of a tertiary care hospital

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:130 - 135]

Keywords: Drug overdose, outcomes, poisoning, tertiary care center

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102070  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Poisoning and drug overdose (DO) are important health problems in developing countries. These emergencies are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Different factors affect the final outcome of patients. This study aims to review the pattern of poisoning and DO in an urban tertiary care hospital and also the determinants and final outcome of patients with poisoning and DO. Materials and Methods:Observational, retrospective hospital records-based study at a tertiary care hospital (15 months). Data on demography, hospitalization, complications, type of poison/drug and outcome of patients with poisoning and DO were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi square test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the total of 296 records, 213 were included (122 poisoning, 91 DO). Organophosphates (OP) (32.5%), pyrethroids (17.2%) and organocarbamates (12.2%) were the commonly used poisons. Sedatives and antiepileptics (21% each) were the common DOs. Poisoning among men was greater than that among women (P < 0.001). Outcome parameters of hospital stay and ventilator requirement were significant (P < 0.001). The overall case fatality rate was 2.4%. Conclusions: OP compounds were the most common among poisons, while sedatives were frequently consumed drugs. Young adults from urban areas were the common victims with suicidal intention. Regulations, educational awareness and poison information centers will help to reduce the growth of this public health problem.

Retraction Notice

Retraction Notice

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:135 - 135]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/ijccm-16-3-135  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


V. Kumar, M. R. Sen, C. Nigam, R. Gahlot, S. Kumari

Burden of different beta-lactamase classes among clinical isolates of AmpC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn patients: A prospective study

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:136 - 140]

Keywords: AmpC, extended-spectrum beta lactamase, metallo β-lactamases, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102077  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens causing infections in burns, and shows increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by producing different classes of beta-lactamases. It is also not unusual to find a single isolate that expresses multiple β-lactamase enzymes, further complicating the treatment options. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the coexistence of different beta-lactamase enzymes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in the burn ward. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from the burn ward were identified and tested for the presence of different beta-lactamase enzymes (extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL), Amp C and metallo β-lactamases (MBL) from October 2006 to May 2009. In vitro susceptibility pattern of antipseudomonal antibiotics was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 33 (32.7%) isolates were confirmed to be positive for AmpC beta-lactamase. Co-production of AmpC along with ESBL and MBL was reported in 24.5% and 45.5% isolates, respectively. A total of 12 (11.9%) isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes (multidrug resistance). Imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactum showed high sensitivity, with 86.1% and 82.2%, respectively. Conclusion: This study reveals the high prevalence of multidrug- resistant P. aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase enzymes of different mechanisms in this region from burn patients. The emerging antimicrobial resistance in burn wound pathogens poses serious therapeutic challenge. Thus proper antibiotic policy and measures to restrict the indiscriminate use of cephalosporins and carbapenems should be taken to minimize the emergence of this multiple beta -lactamase producing pathogen.


Fanak Fahimi, Hamidreza Jamaati, Seyed Mohammad Hashemian, Arvin Najafi, Somayeh Ghafari, Payam Tabarsi, Arnavaz Akhzarmehr

Continuous versus intermittent administration of piperacillin-tazobactam in intensive care unit patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:141 - 147]

Keywords: Piperacillin, tazobactam, ventilator-associated pneumonia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102083  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and Aims: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infection. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of continuous and intermittent administration of piperacillin-tazobactam by serial measurements of the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS). Subjects and Methods: Groups were designed as parallel and the study was designed as quasi-experimental and conducted at a semi-closed ICU between September 2008 and May 2010. Patients received 3.375 g (piperacillin 3 g/tazobactam 0.375 g) either through intermittent infusion every 6 h for 30 min [Intermittent Infusion (II) group; n = 30] or through continuous infusion every 8 h for 4 h [Continuous Infusion (CI) group; n = 31]. CPIS was used to assess the clinical diagnosis and outcome of VAP patients. Results: Sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II II score on ICU admission, diagnosis and underlying disease of VAP patients were not significantly different in the CI (n = 31) and II (n = 30) groups. Duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, total number of antibiotics used per patient and duration of piperacillin/tazobactam treatment were similar in both groups. Mortality rates of VAP patients were similar between both groups during hospitalization. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in clinical outcomes of patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam via CI or II when measured by serial CPIS score.

Critical Care Education: A commentary

Vijay Kumar Arora, Vaibhav Chachra

Virtual ICU and E-learning tools: Scope in critical care medicine in India

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:148 - 150]

Keywords: E-Learning, simulators, virtual ICU

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102084  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Critical care medicine is an important tool for decreasing morbidity and mortality of patients. There is a need to develop effective web content for use of intensivists and related disciplinaries. Use of simulators and production of good quality videos and their uploading on national connectivity can add fillip to the “National Mission of Education” started by the Government of India.


Syed Ahmed Zaki, Amit Dolas

Refractory cardiogenic shock in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:151 - 153]

Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism, hypotension, levothyroxine, refractory shock.

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102086  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Thyroid dysfunction causes remarkable cardiovascular derangements. Both systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the heart can occur in hypothyroidism leading to cardiac arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. Refractory cardiogenic shock and hypotension in congenital hypothyroidism is rare. We describe a 5-month-old female infant with congenital hypothyroidism and refractory cardiogenic shock. Cardiac function and hemodynamic stability were restored after starting levothyroxine therapy.


K.N. Prasad, Souvik Chaudhury

Intrathoracic cystic hygroma with sudden respiratory distress mimicking pneumonia

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:154 - 156]

Keywords: Cystic hygroma, intrathoracic tumour, pneumonia, respiratory distress

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102088  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Benign cystic lesions such as cystic hygroma commonly manifest as progressively increasing swelling in the neck with or without compression effects. Rarely, they present with sudden respiratory distress in instances such as infection or haematoma resulting in a sudden increase in the size of the tumour. We present a seven month old child with sudden onset respiratory distress without any obvious neck swelling. The chest X ray findings correlated with the history and were suggestive of right upper lobe pneumonia that leads to a wrong diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia. However, presence of a deviated trachea in the neck raised a suspicion of possible mass. Computed tomogram showed a large cystic mass in the right upper mediastinum with tracheal collapse. We caution intensivists and paediatricians that sudden respiratory distress in infants in the absence of obvious neck swelling does not rule out possibility of intrathoracic tumour.


Monodeep Biswas, Pranjal Kumar Boruah, Lear Von Koch

A conservative surgical approach for management of iatrogenic pulmonary artery perforation

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:157 - 159]

Keywords: Hemorrhage, pulmonary artery, thoracostomy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102091  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Accidental malposition of a chest tube in the pulmonary artery is a potentially fatal complication. Here we describe a 66 year-old obese woman with prior cardiac transplantation, intubated for respiratory failure and felt to have a large left pleural effusion. A chest tube was inserted using a trocar tube, and resulted in near-exsanguinating hemorrhage immediately, with development of hypovolemic shock. Prompt clamping of the tube proved life-saving, and CT scan confirmed placement of the tube in the main pulmonary artery. Initial stabilization, followed by a planned surgical approach, resulted in successful removal of the tube.


Vivek B. Kute, Hargovind L. Trivedi, Pankaj R. Shah, Manoj R. Gumber, Himanshu V. Patel, Aruna V. Vanikar, Sachin B. Patil

Successful treatment of Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia in dialysis patient

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:160 - 162]

Keywords: Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, old end stage renal disease, steroid

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102094  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A 42-year-old end stage renal disease (ESRD) patient was admitted with fever, anorexia, malaise, non-productive cough, and dyspnea, of one-week duration. Multiple cultures of the blood, sputum, and urine were negative for microorganisms. The possibility of bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was considered when patient with pulmonary infiltrate did not respond to conventional antibiotic therapy and frequent hemodyalisis. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest revealed patchy air-space consolidation, ground-glass opacities, and small nodular opacities, predominantly located at the peripheral part of the lungs. Cultures and stains of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen and bronchoscopic biopsy of lung tissue were negative for organisms [bacteria, mycobacterium tuberculosis, PCP, fungus, and atypical organism] and showed evidence of BOOP. Patient recovered completely with early diagnosis and treatment with steroids and underwent successful renal transplantation with wife as donor without postoperative complication and relapse.


Varun Cheruparambath, Lakshmikanthan N. Deshikar, Haji Mohammed Ismail, Krishna Bhuvana

A low-cost reusable phantom for ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:163 - 165]

Keywords: Central venous cannulation, gelatin phantom, subclavian vein, ultrasound-guided

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102097  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Guidelines support the use of ultrasound (US)-guided central venous cannulation in the intensive care unit. Traditional techniques based on anatomical landmarks are blind procedures and inexpert USG procedures may be hazardous. Commercially available phantoms for simulation and training are expensive. The technique of making a low-cost reusable gelatin phantom which simulates subclavian vein anatomy is described. Techniques to improve eye-hand skills with this phantom are described. This phantom is easy to make, inexpensive and easily renewable.


R. Chawla, F. Kapadia, R. Rajagopalan, P. Amin, P. Khilnani, S. Prayag, R. Uttam, J.V. Divatia, S.N. Myatra, S.K. Todi

Guidelines for end-of-life and palliative care in Indian intensive care units: ISCCM consensus Ethical Position Statement

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:16] [Pages No:166 - 181]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hossein Sanaei-Zadeh

Treatment of amlodipine overdose

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:182 - 182]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102101  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Sananta Kumar Dash, Rakesh Sharma

Bed to bedside: Plan for early mobilization

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:182 - 184]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.102103  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Authors' reply

Parshotam Lal Gautam, Sunit Kathuria, Sunita Chhabra

Authors′ reply

[Year:2012] [Month:July] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:184 - 184]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/ijccm-16-3-184  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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