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Aik-Yong C, Ye-Xin K, Yi N, Hway W. Abdominal compartment syndrome: Incidence and prognostic factors influencing survival in Singapore. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (10):648-652.
Aim of Study: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a distinct clinical entity in the critically ill-patient, which leads to end-organ dysfunction. However, data on the incidence of ACS is scarce, and this is also likely contributed by under-diagnosis of this clinical condition. This study reports all cases of ACS in a tertiary institution in Singapore over 10 years, and evaluates prognostic factors affecting survival.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective clinical study included 17 patients with ACS, of which 13 underwent decompressive laparotomy, over a 10 years period. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors predicting mortality was performed using Chi-square or Fisher-exact test as appropriate.
Results: Mean arterial pressure was significantly improved postoperatively, and intra-abdominal pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure significantly decreased. Overall mortality was 47.1%. Advanced age of more than 65 years, gender, large volume resuscitation of more than 3.5 L over 24 h, three or more co-morbidities, requirement of inotropes, usage of mechanical ventilation, and the presence of concurrent lung and renal dysfunction were not adverse prognostic indicators of poorer outcome. The occurrence of multiple relook laparotomies was shown to be the only independent prognostic factor predicting a favorable outcome among these patients on univariate and multivariate analyses. The incidence of ACS accounts for only 0.1% of all Intensive Care Unit admissions during the study period of 10 years, likely due to under-diagnosis.
Conclusion: We believe that a protocol for a focused measurement in high-risk groups will increase the diagnostic yield of this condition. Multiple laparotomies for abdominal decompression can lead to improved survival.
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Kher V, Bhan A, Kumar M, Sethi S, Bazaz S, Sharma P. Vasoactive Inotrope Score as a tool for clinical care in children post cardiac surgery. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (10):653-658.
Background: Neonates and infants undergoing heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are at high risk for significant post-operative morbidity and mortality. Hence, there is a need to identify and quantify clinical factors during the early post-operative period that are indicative of short-term as well as long-term outcomes. Multiple inotrope scores have been used in practice to quantify the amount of cardiovascular support received by neonates.
Aims: The goal of this study was to determine the association between inotropic/vasoactive support and clinical outcomes in children after open cardiac surgery.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the 208 patients who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease at a tertiary pediatric cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from January 2012 to March 2013. Multiple demographic, intra-operative and post-operative variables were recorded, including the Vasoactive Inotrope Score (VIS).
Results: A total of 208 patients underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease in the study period. The mean age and weight in the study were 66.94 months and 16.31 kg, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found in the various variables and VIS, including infancy, weight < 10 kg, CPB time, pump failure and post-operative variables like sepsis, hematological complications, hepatic dysfunction, acute kidney injury during admission, mortality, prolonged ventilator requirement, CPB time (in min) and hospital stay.
Conclusions: Inotrope score and its adaptations are an excellent tool to measure illness severity, deciding interventions and during parental counseling in the pediatric cardiac surgery ICUs.
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Singh G, Sen N, Gladdy G, Chandy T. Incidence and outcome of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the surgical intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (10):659-665.
Introduction: To determine the incidence and mortality of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a cohort of patients with risk factors admitted to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU).
Materials and Methods: A prospective observational inception cohort study with no intervention was conducted over 12 months. All patients with at least one known risk factor for ALI/ARDS admitted to the SICU were included in the study. The APACHE II severity of disease classification system scoring was performed within 1 h of admission. The ventilatory parameters and chest radiographs were recorded every 24 h. The P/F ratio, PEEP and Lung Injury Score were calculated each day until the day of discharge from the Intensive Care Unit or for the first 7 days of admission, whichever was shorter.
Results: The incidence of ARDS among those who were mechanically ventilated was 11.4%. Sepsis was the most common (34.6%) etiology. Among those with risk factors, the incidence of ARDS was 30% and that of ALI was 32.7%. The mortality in those with ARDS was 41.8%. Those who develop ARDS had higher APACHE II scores, lower pH and higher PaCO 2 at admission compared with those who developed ALI or no lung injury.
Conclusion: The incidence and mortality of ARDS was similar to other studies. Identifying those with risk factors for ARDS or mortality will enable appropriate interventional measures.
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Jain N, Manish G, Robo R, Consil S, Kumar S. Oxidative stress determined through the levels of antioxidant enzymes and the effect of N-acetylcysteine in aluminum phosphide poisoning. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (10):666-671.
Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the serum level of antioxidant enzymes and to correlate them with outcome in patients of aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning and, secondly, to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) given along with supportive treatment of ALP poisoning.
Design: We conducted a cohort study in patients of ALP poisoning hospitalized at a tertiary care center of North India. The treatment group and control group were enrolled during the study period of 1 year from May 2011 to April 2012.
Interventions: Oxidative stress was evaluated in each subject by estimating the serum levels of the enzymes, viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). The treatment group comprised of patients who were given NAC in addition to supportive treatment (magnesium sulfate and vasopressors, if required), while in the control group, only supportive treatment was instituted. The primary endpoint of the study was the survival of the patients.
Measurements and Results: The baseline catalase (P = 0.008) and SOD (P < 0.01) levels were higher among survivors than non-survivors. Of the total patients in the study, 31 (67.4%) expired and 15 (32.6%) survived. Among those who expired, the mean duration of survival was 2.92 ± 0.40 days in the test group and 1.82 ± 0.33 days in the control group (P = 0.043).
Conclusions: This study suggests that the baseline level of catalase and SOD have reduced in ALP poisoning, but baseline GR level has not suppressed but is rather increasing with due time, and more so in the treatment group. NAC along with supportive treatment may have improved survival in ALP poisoning.
Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery performed on patients with end stage liver disease. Nutrition is an integral part of patient care, and protein-energy malnutrition is almost universally present in patients suffering from liver disease undergoing LT. Nutrition assessment of preliver transplant phase helps to make a good nutrition care plan for the patients. Nutrition status has been associated with various factors which are related to the success of liver transplant such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. To assess the nutritional status of preliver transplant patients, combinations of nutrition assessment methods should be used like subjective global assessment, Anthropometry mid arm-muscle circumference, Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and handgrip strength.
Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies.
Aim: We are using multimodal technique to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance among all health care staff for the past 1-year. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the surgical ICU to assess adherence to HH among nurses and allied healthcare workers, at the end of the training year.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study using direct observation technique. A single observer collected all HH data. During this analysis, 1500 HH opportunities were observed. HH compliance was tested for all 5 moments as per WHO guidelines.
Results: Overall compliance as per WHO Guidelines was 78%. Nurses had an adherence rate of 63%; allied staff adherence was 86.5%. Compliance was 93% after patient contact versus 63% before patient contact. Nurses′compliance before aseptic procedures was lowest at 39%. 92% staff was aware of the facts viz. Diseases prevented by hand washing, ideal duration of HH, reduction of health care associated infections, etc.
Conclusion: After 1-year of aggressive multimodal intervention in improving HH compliance, we have an overall compliance of 78%. It implies that sustained performance and compliance to HH can be ensured by ongoing training. Direct observation remains a widely used, easily reproducible method for monitoring compliance.
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Jain P, Murkute A, Angadi U, Sharique T, Hegde R. Paediatric pulmonary haemorrhage: Independent lung ventilation as effective strategy in management. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (10):694-696.
Pulmonary haemorrhage is an uncommon symptom in paediatrics with the etiology varying among the series by age, location, and the diagnostic tests employed. Once airway protection and volume resuscitation are ensured, localization of the anatomic site of bleeding, isolation of the involved airway, control of haemorrhage and treatment of the underlying cause of becomes essential. In localized persistent bleeding, airway control may be achieved by lung isolation with double lumen endotracheal tube and synchronous independent lung ventilation