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Mehta H, Kashyap R, Trivedi S. Correlation of end tidal and arterial carbon dioxide levels in critically Ill neonates and children. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):348-353.
Aim of the Study: End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 ) monitoring is considered to reflect real-time estimation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO 2 ) noninvasively. However, knowledge about its relationship with PaCO 2 in critically ill pediatric and neonatal patients is limited. The primary objective was to evaluate predictive capability of end tidal carbon dioxide monitoring and secondary objective was to determine the influence of severity of lung disease on EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 relationship.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive enrollment study carried out in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a tertiary care children hospital. It was conducted in 66 neonates and 35 children receiving mechanical ventilation. Severity of lung disease was estimated by ventilation index and PaO 2 /FiO 2 (P/F) ratio. Simultaneous recording of EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 levels was done and data were analyzed for correlation and agreement.
Results: In neonates, 150 EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 pairs were recorded. The mean weight ± SD of patients was 2.1 ± 0.63 kg. PaCO 2 had a positive correlation with EtCO 2 (r = 0.836, 95% CI = 0.78-0.88). P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. In infants and children, 96 pairs were recorded. Mean age ± SD of patients was 4.20 ± 4.92 years and mean weight ± SD was 13.1 ± 9.49 kg. PaCO 2 had an excellent correlation with EtCO 2 (r = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.87 and 0.94). P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship.
Conclusion: EtCO 2 monitoring displayed a good validity to predict PaCO 2. Correlation was affected by low P/F ratio (<200); hence, it is recommended that blood gases be measured in these patients until such time that a good relation can be established between end tidal and arterial CO 2 values.
Dnyaneshwar P. Mutkule,
Pradeep M. Venkategowda,
Alai N. Taggu
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Mutkule DP, Venkategowda PM, Taggu AN. Unexpected events occurring during the intra-hospital transport of critically ill ICU patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):354-357.
Background: Intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients is a challenging task. However, despite the improvements in intra-hospital transport practices, adverse event incidents remain high and constitute a significant risk for the transport of the critically ill ICU patients.
Objectives: To observe the number and types of unexpected-events (UEs) occurring during intra-hospital transport of critically ill ICU patients. Interventions provided along with outcome.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 254 intra-hospital critically-ill ICU patients of our hospital transported for diagnostic purposes during April 2012 - March 2013. The escorting intensivist completed the data of unexpected events during transport.
Results: A total of 254 patients were observed prospectively for UEs during intra-hospital transfer of critically ill patients. The overall UEs observed were 139 among 64 patients. Among the UEs which occurred, the maximum were miscellaneous causes [89 (64.00%)] like oxygen probe [38 (27.33%)] or ECG lead displacement [27 (19.42%)]. Major events like fall in spo2 >5% observed in 15 (10.79%) patients, BP variation > 20% from baseline in 22 (15.82%) patients, altered mental status in 5 (3.59%), and arrhythmias in 6 (4.31%) patients. Among 64 (100%) patients with UEs, 3 (2.15%) patients with serious adverse events have been aborted from transport.
Conclusion: Unexpected-events (UEs) are common during transport of critically ill ICU patients and these adverse events can be reduced when critically ill patients are accompanied by intensivist/medically qualified person during transport and following strict transport guidelines.
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Chandra S, Aggarwal G. Predictors of postoperative pulmonary complications after liver resection: Results from a tertiary care intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):358-362.
Background: Postoperative pulmonary complication (PPC) is a serious complication after liver surgery and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, the early identification of risk factors of PPCs may help to reduce the adverse outcomes.
Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the predictors of PPCs in patients undergoing hepatic resection. Design: Retrospective, observational.
Methods: The patients admitted after hepatic resection in the gastrosurgical ICU of our institute between October 2009 and June 2013 was identified. The ICU charts were retrieved from the database to identify patients who developed PPCs. A comparison of risk factors was made between the patients who developed PPC (PPC group) against the patients who did not (no-PPC group).
Results: Of 117 patients with hepatic resection, 28 patients developed PPCs. Among these, pneumonia accounted for 12 (42.8%) followed by atelectasis in 8 (28.5%) and pleural effusion in 3 (10.7%). Among the patients developing PPCs, 16 patients were over a 70-year-old (57.1%), 21 patients were smokers (75%) and 8 patients (28.5%) had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The requirement for blood transfusion and duration of mechanical ventilation were greater in the patients developing PPC (2000 ± 340 vs. 1000 ± 210 ml; 10 ± 4.5 vs. 3 ± 1.3 days).
Conclusion: Old age, chronic smoking, COPD, increased blood product transfusion, increased duration of mechanical ventilation and increased length of ICU stay increased the relative risk of PPC, presence of diabetes and occurrence of surgical complications (leak, dehiscence, etc.) were independent predictive variables for the development of PPC.
Context: Neurological intensive care units (ICUs) are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs.
Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India.
Settings and Design: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey.
Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India.
Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics.
Results: The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82); 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC) techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists.
Conclusions: Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the devices available for AC.
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Nejmi H, Rebahi H, Ejlaidi A, Abouelhassan T, Samkaoui M. The ability of two scoring systems to predict in-hospital mortality of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries in a Moroccan intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):369-375.
Aim of Study: We aim to assess and to compare the predicting power for in-hospital mortality (IHM) of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (SAPS-II) for traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted during a period of 2 years and 9 months in a Moroccan intensive care unit. Data were collected during the first 24 h of each admission. The clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed and used as per each scoring system to calculate the scores. Univariate and multivariate analyses through regression logistic models were performed, to predict IHM after moderate and severe TBIs. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC), specificities and sensitivities were determined and also compared.
Results: A total of 225 patients were enrolled. The observed IHM was 51.5%. The univariate analysis showed that the initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was lower in nonsurviving patients (mean GCS = 6) than the survivors (mean GCS = 9) with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0024). The APACHE-II and the SAPS-II of the nonsurviving patients were higher than those of the survivors (respectively 20.4 ± 6.8 and 31.2 ± 13.6 for nonsurvivors vs. 15.7 ± 5.4 and 22.7 ± 10.3 for survivors) with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0032 for APACHE-II and P = 0.0045 for SAPS-II). Multivariate analysis: APACHE-II was superior for predicting IHM (AUROC = 0.92).
Conclusion: The APACHE-II is an interesting tool to predict IHM of head injury patients. This is particularly relevant in Morocco, where TBI is a greater public health problem than in many other countries.
Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice - in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures.
Thrombo-prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and mortality in surgical patients. The purpose of this review is to find out the evidence-based clinical practice criteria of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients. English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis were included if they provided clinical outcomes and evaluated therapy with low-dose heparin or related agents compared with placebo, no treatment, or other active prophylaxis in the critically ill and medically ill population. For the same, we searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. In acutely ill medical patients on the basis of meta-analysis by Lederle et al. (40 trials) and LIFENOX study, heparin prophylaxis had no significant effect on mortality. The prophylaxis may have reduced PE in acutely ill medical patients, but led to more bleeding events, thus resulting in no net benefit. In critically ill patients, results of meta-analysis by Alhazzani et al. and PROTECT Trial indicate that any heparin prophylaxis compared with placebo reduces the rate of DVT and PE, but not symptomatic DVT. Major bleeding risk and mortality rates were similar. On the basis of MAGELLAN trial and EINSTEIN program, rivaroxaban offers a single-drug approach to the short-term and continued treatment of venous thrombosis. Aspirin has been used as antiplatelet agent, but when the data from two trials the ASPIRE and WARFASA study were pooled, there was a 32% reduction in the rate of recurrence of venous thrombo-embolism and a 34% reduction in the rate of major vascular events.
Patients with traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are not uncommon in intensive care unit (ICU). The ventilatory management of patients combined with both of these catastrophic conditions is not straightforward. Evidence-based permissive hypercapnia strategy for ARDS could be fatal in patients with intracranial hypertension. Adjunctive use of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is well-defined as a rescue therapy in severe ARDS, but its specific role in intracranial hypertension is somewhat uncertain. We report a case, which following traumatic brain injury developed both intracranial hypertension and ARDS. INO was given for ARDS, but coincidentally it also improved the raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and patient′s neurological outcome. The case report will be followed by literature review on the role of INO in raised ICP.
Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) is an established, but grossly under diagnosed and underreported complication of blood transfusion. We present the case of a 46-year-old diabetic and hypertensive patient admitted to our hospital for recurrent episodes of urinary retention. Over initial 3 days of the admission, the patient received multiple units of packed red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma, uneventfully. However, the patient developed signs and symptoms suggestive of TACO with only small amount of the 4 th unit of RBC. The patient had to be shifted to the Intensive Care Unit for further management of this complication. Etiology of TACO is more complex than a mere circulatory overload and is still not completely understood. TACO leads to a prolonged hospital stay and morbidity in the patients developing this complication. TACO thus needs to be suspected in patients at risk for this complication.
Suneel K. Garg,
Pankaj K. Goyal,
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Singh O, Kumar R, Garg SK, Goyal PK, Bhasin A. Management of life-threatening calcium channel blocker overdose with continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration with charcoal hemoperfusion. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):399-401.
Cases of calcium channel blocker overdose reported from India are few, and although rare, they are associated with high mortality. Management includes fluids, vasopressors, calcium gluconate or chloride, glucagon infusion, and hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy along with some rescue therapies tried in anecdotal reports. We report here a case of life-threatening overdose of amlodipine with shock, refractory to conventional therapies. Salvage therapy with continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration using charcoal hemoperfusion with prior infusion of intravenous lipid emulsion resulted in a successful outcome.
A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye \"Super Vasmol 33\" intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Ritesh G. Menezes,
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Dube SK, Sarkar S, Panda PS, Singh DK. Metabolic alkalosis: A less appreciated side-effect of imipenem cilastatin use-author′s reply. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):406-406.
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Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P, Manikam R, David SS. Continuous versus intermittent methylene blue administration: which spin will win?. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (6):407-408.