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Friedman G, Flávia Couto CL, Becker M. Randomized study to compare nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critically ill patients without prior evidence of altered gastric emptying. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (2):71-75.
Background and Aims: Studies comparing jejunal and gastric nutrition show inconsistent results regarding pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia comparing gastric with jejunal nutrition. Secondarily, we evaluated 28 th day Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality rate and other complications related to enteral feeding. Subjects: Age >18 years; need for enteral nutrition without contraindication for placement of an enteral tube, duration of ICU stay > than 48 h. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive enteral feed via a gastric or jejunal tube. Jejunal tubes were inserted at bedside and placement was confirmed radiographically. Results: A total of 115 patients were enrolled, with 61 patients into the gastric tube group and 54 patients into the jejunal group tube. Baseline characteristics were similar. There was no difference in pneumonia or ICU mortality rates, ICU length of stay and ventilator days. Complications rates were similar. Conclusions: We conclude that the enteral nutrition through a jejunal tube does not reduce the rate of pneumonia in comparison to a gastric tube. In addition, we did not observe differences in rates of gastrointestinal complications or ICU mortality. The routine placement of a jejunal tube in critically ill-patients cannot be recommended.
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Thakur A, Jain M, Dogra V, Mishra B, Loomba PS. Knowledge and attitude of doctors and nurses regarding indication for catheterization and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (2):76-81.
Background and Aims: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common health care acquired infection encountered in clinical practice. The present study was planned to assess the knowledge and attitude of health care providers regarding the indications for catheterization and methods of preventing CAUTI. Methods: A prospective questionnaire-based survey was done from March 2011 to August 2011. A structured questionnaire comprising of 41 items related to demographic details of the respondents, their knowledge regarding indications for catheterization and methods of preventing CAUTI was given to 54 doctors and 105 nurses. The response was evaluated for statistical correlation using a computer software. Results: The mean years of experience of the respondents in the health care setup was 6.8 years. Only 57% of the respondents could identify all the measures for prevention of CAUTI. The knowledge regarding the indication for catheterization though suboptimal was significantly better amongst the doctors as compared to nurses. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding indication and preventive measures was suboptimal in our study group. There is a tremendous scope of improvement in catheterization practices in our hospital and education induced intervention would be the most appropriate effort toward reducing the incidence of CAUTI.
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Kiran S, Eapen S, Chopra V. A comparative study of complications and long term outcomes of Surgical Tracheostomy and two techniques of Percutaneous Tracheostomy. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (2):82-86.
Context: The operative technique for surgical tracheostomy has remained unchanged, but different techniques for percutaneous tracheostomy have evolved due to interest in minimally invasive procedures for the critically ill patient. Aims: To compare the periprocedural complications and long term outcomes of bedside surgical tracheostomy (ST) with two percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) techniques, namely serial guide wire dilating forceps (GWDF) and PercuTwist (PT). Settings and Design: This prospective observational study was carried out in ICU of a tertiary referral centre over three year period on adult intubated patients needing elective tracheostomy. Materials and Methods: Patients with anticipated difficult neck anatomy were assigned for ST based on discretion of intensivist. Patients included for PCT were randomly assigned to the GWDT and PT technique. 90 patients underwent either bedside ST (n = 30), PCT by GWDF technique (n = 30) or PCT with PercuTwist (n = 30) and were followed up with fibreoptic bronchoscopy monthly for 06 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by applying chi square tests for categorical variables. Results: Periprocedural complications during PCT included major bleeding (>100ml) in two patients in GWDF group which required conversion to ST. Periprocedural bleeding was also the main complication in ST. Increased incidence of granulation tissue and tracheal narrowing in long term was seen in both ST and PCT groups. All of the P values analysed for the intra operative, post operative complications or long term outcomes were >0.05. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of complications of ST and two techniques of PCT. Proper case selection makes PCT as safe as ST.
Bashu Dev Parajuli,
Gentle S. Shrestha,
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Parajuli BD, Shrestha GS, Pradhan B, Amatya R. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (2):87-91.
Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer-Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman′s correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study.
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Sathornviriyapong S, Polbhakdee Y. Gradual sucrose gastric loading test: A method for the prediction of nonsuccess gastric enteral feeding in critically ill surgical patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (2):92-98.
Background and Aims: Intolerance of gastric enteral feeding (GEN) commonly occurs in surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU). A liquid containing sugar could prolong gastric emptying time. This study was to propose a method for prediction of nonsuccess GEN using gastric volume after loading (GVAL) following gradual sucrose gastric loading. Materials and Methods: Mechanical ventilator supported and hemodynamically stable patients in SICU were enrolled. About 180-240 min before the GEN starting, a sucrose solution (12.5%; 450 mosmole/kg, 800 mL) was administered via gastric feeding tube over 30 min with 45° head upright position. GVAL was measured at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after loading. GEN success status using clinical criteria was assessed at 72 h after the starting GEN protocol. The receiving operating characteristic (ROC) and c statistic were used for discrimination at each time point of GVAL. Results: A total of 32 patients were enrolled and completed the protocol. 14 patients (43.7%) were nonsuccessful GEN. The nonsuccess group was found to have significantly more GVAL than the other group at all-time points during the test (P < 0.05). The most discriminating point of GVAL for the prediction of nonsuccess was 150 mL at 120 min after loading with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 88.9%, positive predictive value of 85.7%, negative predictive value of 94.1%, and ROC area 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.00). Conclusion: A high GVAL following sucrose gastric loading test might be a method to predict nonsuccess GEN in critically ill surgical patients.
Severe sepsis often leads to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) with acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI affects approximately, 35% of Intensive Care Unit patients, and most of these are due to sepsis. Mortality rate of sepsis-induced AKI is high. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials may be responsible for higher therapeutic failure, mortality rates, costs and toxicity as well as the emergence of resistance. Antimicrobial treatment is particularly difficult due to altered pharmacokinetic profile, dynamic changes in patient′s clinical status and, in many cases, need for renal replacement therapy. This article aims to describe the appropriate antimicrobial dosing and reviews the factors contributing to the difficulties in establishing precise guidelines for antimicrobial dosing in sepsis-induced AKI patients. Search strategy: Text material was collected by systematic search in PubMed, Google (1978-2013) for original articles.
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Agrawal VK, Singh RK, Kumawat BL, Mahajan P. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: Possible role of supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (2):109-112.
Aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning is one of the major causes of suicidal deaths. Toxicity by ALP is caused by the liberation of phosphine gas, which rapidly causes cell hypoxia due to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to circulatory failure. Treatment of ALP toxicity is mainly supportive as there is no specific antidote. We recently managed 7 cases of ALP poisoning with severe hemodynamic effects. Patients were treated with supportive measures including gastric lavage with diluted potassium permanganate, coconut oil and sodium-bicarbonate first person account should be avoided in a scientific paper. Intravenous magnesium sulfate, proper hemodynamic monitoring and vasopressors. Four out of 7 survived thus suggesting a role of such supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote for ALP poisoning.
Endotracheal tube (ETT) suction is essential to clear secretions so that airway patency can be maintained. Stuck suction catheter in ETT is an uncommon event, and it can be dangerous in patients with difficult airway cases.
A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel.
Aorto-esophageal fistula is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Thoracic aneurysm, the most common cause of this condition, will slowly increase over time and can erode the wall of the aorta creating a fistula and leading to torrential bleeding. High clinical suspicion is required for timely diagnosis as common investigations routinely done for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, fails to detect most cases. The classical triad of midthoracic pain, herald bleeding and fatal hematemesis described in this condition is seen in only one-third of cases. Physician should be wary of this condition, especially in elderly patients with uncontrolled GI bleeding and who are also at risk of thoracic aneurysm. Computed tomography angiogram detects most cases and emergent endovascular repair with stents controls the initial bleeding. Later, both the aorta and the esophagus are repaired and reconstructed in staged procedures.
We present a female patient who was referred for management of respiratory failure. She was being evaluated and managed as worsening chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with type 2 respiratory failure. Initial examination showed hypertrichosis, clubbing and papilledema along with severe distal and proximal motor-predominant weakness with impending respiratory failure. She was managed with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and plasmapheresis awaiting diagnostic investigations. Immunofixation showed an \"M band\" and free lambda chain levels were elevated. Radiographs showed the classic osteosclerotic lesions of POEMS (polyradiculoneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and Skin abnormalities) syndrome. Six weeks after commencing radiotherapy to the osteosclerotic lesions, the patient responded favorably and remains off nocturnal NIV support.