Introduction: Hypomagnesemia has been common, but mostly underdiagnosed electrolyte abnormality. Studies regarding this is lacking in India especially in rural setting. Here, we have correlated serum magnesium (Mg) level with outcome in patients of medicine Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with respect to length of ICU stay, need for mechanical ventilatory support and its duration and ultimate outcome (discharge/death). Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study carried out over a period of 1-year enrolling 601 patients of Medical ICU (MICU). The Chi-square test is applied to correlate hypomagnesemia with the outcome. Result and Observation: About 25% patients had admission hypomagnesemia. When compared with the normal Mg group, there was significant association of hypomagnesemia with outcome in terms of duration of MICU stay 5.46 (5.75) versus 3.93 (3.88), need for mechanical ventilation (56.86% vs. 24.33%), discharge/cured from ICU (61.43% vs. 85.26%), and death (38.56% vs. 14.73%). However, no significant difference was found in the duration of ventilation between the two groups. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is associated with a higher mortality rate in critically ill patients. The need for ventilatory support, but not its duration is significantly higher in hypomagnesemic patients. Hypomagnesemia is commonly associated with sepsis and diabetes mellitus. The duration of MICU stay is significantly higher in patients with low serum Mg.
G. Chetan Kumar,
P. N. Venkatarathnamma,
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Kumar GC, Bhuvana K, Venkatarathnamma PN, Sarala N. Serum creatine phosphokinase as predictor of intermediate syndrome in organophosphorus poisoning. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (7):384-387.
Background: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are commonly used pesticides. In OP poisoning, intermediate syndrome (IMS) manifests between the end of the acute cholinergic crisis and delayed neuropathy. Respiratory paralysis in IMS, if identified early can reduce the need for ventilator support, morbidity, and mortality. Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is elevated in IMS. The objectives of our study were to measure serum CPK level, correlate CPK levels with severity of poisoning and estimate atropine dose used. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted for 1-year. Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included. Demographic characteristics, type of poison, time since poisoning, Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisoning (POP) score, serum pseudocholinesterase, CPK levels, atropine dose, and outcome of treatment were documented. Results: Seventy-five patients were recruited of which 57% and 43% were males and females, respectively, with a mean age of 31.48 ± 11.76 years. The most common OP compound was chlorpyriphos followed by triazophos and methylparathion. The time required to reach hospital was 181.26 ± 89.53 min. About 73.3% and 26.7% of patients had mild and moderate poisoning, respectively, as per POP scale. Pseudocholinesterase level was 364 (205-2168) IU. The amount of atropine used was 190.66 ± 78.83 mg. Serial serum CPK values were 279.72 ± 350.21 IU, 389.78 ± 376.33 IU and 163.13 ± 155.15 IU at admission, 48 h, and 96 h after admission, respectively. A weak positive correlation between serum CPK levels and severity of poisoning (r = 0.352) was observed. All patients recovered completely within 10.69 ± 5.57 days. Three patients developed IMS, and their serial CPK levels were 1837.33 ± 243.19 IU/L, 1935 ± 97.41 IU/L, and 714.66 ± 394.82 IU/L; and recovered in 17 ± 5.6 days. Conclusion: Increased serum CPK levels at 48 h after poisoning was observed in all the patients, but three patients had more than 1500 IU/L, who manifested with IMS. Early diagnosis of IMS by serial estimation of CPK may help in timely intervention and reduce further life-threatening complications.
Background: Hemodynamic monitoring (HM) and optimization of cardiac output and parameters of dynamic fluid responsiveness is said to improve perioperative outcome in high-risk surgical patients (HRSP). There is insufficient data to determine the burden of care and HM practices in HRSP in Nigeria. Hence, the need to assess and document the current hemodynamic management practices of anesthetists in Nigeria regarding patients undergoing high-risk surgery. Methods: An electronic mail (E-mail) based survey was conducted among 180 consultant members of the Nigeria Society of Anaesthetists. The survey contained 24 questions that range from practice location, experience in the perioperative management of high-risk patients, expectations of care, to what is available to the anesthetists to provide such care. The survey was on for 3 months. Results: A total of 157 E-mail messages were delivered, and 73 responses were received, giving a response rate of 46.5%. The survey showed that 67 (91.8%) of respondents provide or directly supervise anesthesia for HRSP, 50 (84%) of them do this 1-5 times a week. Noninvasive blood pressure (83.6%) was routinely monitored while the central venous pressure (CVP 35.6%), invasive blood pressure (28.8%), and cardiac output (1.4%) monitored less often. Urine output, arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, and clinical experience were considered best indicators of volume expansion. Most respondents were of the opinion that oxygen delivery to tissues is of major importance during the management of HRSP. Conclusion: Nigerian consultant anesthetists employ mostly noninvasive blood pressure, CVP, and invasive blood pressure for HM in HRSP. Though a good knowledge of hemodynamic goals was demonstrated, most rated their practice as inadequate.
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Angappan S, Parida S, Vasudevan A, Badhe A. The comparison of stroke volume variation with central venous pressure in predicting fluid responsiveness in septic patients with acute circulatory failure. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (7):394-400.
Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of stroke volume variation (SVV) in predicting fluid responsiveness and compare it to traditional measures of volume status assessment like central venous pressure (CVP). Methods: Forty-five mechanically ventilated patients in sepsis with acute circulatory failure. Patients were not included when they had atrial fibrillation, other severe arrhythmias, permanent pacemaker, or needed mechanical cardiac support. Furthermore, excluded were patients with hypoxemia and a CVP >12. Patients received volume expansion in the form of 500 ml of 6% hydroxyethyl starch. Results: The volume expansion-induced increase in cardiac index (CI) was >15% in 29 patients (labeled responders) and <15% in 16 patients (labeled nonresponders). Before volume expansion, SVV was higher in responders than in nonresponders. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that SVV was a more accurate indicator of fluid responsiveness than CVP. Before volume expansion, an SVV value of 13% allowed discrimination between responders and nonresponders with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 89%. Volume expansion-induced changes in CI weakly and positively correlated with SVV before volume expansion. Volume expansion decreased SVV from 18.86 ± 4.35 to 7.57 ± 1.80 and volume expansion-induced changes in SVV moderately correlated with volume expansion-induced changes in CI. Conclusions: When predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients in septic shock, SVV is more effective than CVP. Nevertheless, the overall correlation of baseline SVV with increases in CI remains poor. Trends in SVV, as reflected by decreases with volume replacement, seem to correlate much better with increases in CI.
Duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasopressor therapy, early goal-directed therapy, length of hospital stay, length of Intensive Care Unit stay, overall mortality, sepsis, septic shock, severe sepsis
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Abdollahi M, Chelkeba L, Ahmadi A, Najafi A, Mojtahedzadeh M. Early goal-directed therapy reduces mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (7):401-411.
Introduction: Survival sepsis campaign guidelines have promoted early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) as a means for reduction of mortality. On the other hand, there were conflicting results coming out of recently published meta-analyses on mortality benefits of EGDT in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. On top of that, the findings of three recently done randomized clinical trials (RCTs) showed no survival benefit by employing EGDT compared to usual care. Therefore, we aimed to do a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of EGDT on mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Methodology: We included RCTs that compared EGDT with usual care in our meta-analysis. We searched in Hinari, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane central register of controlled trials electronic databases and other articles manually from lists of references of extracted articles. Our primary end point was overall mortality. Results: A total of nine trails comprising 4783 patients included in our analysis. We found that EGDT significantly reduced mortality in a random-effect model (RR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–0.94; P = 0.008; I 2 =50%). We also did subgroup analysis stratifying the studies by the socioeconomic status of the country where studies were conducted, risk of bias, the number of sites where the trials were conducted, setting of trials, publication year, and sample size. Accordingly, trials carried out in low to middle economic income countries (RR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.67–0.91; P = 0.002; I2 = 34%) significantly reduced mortality compared to those in higher income countries (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.33–1.06; P = 0.28; I2 = 29%). On the other hand, patients receiving EGDT had longer length of hospital stay compared to the usual care (mean difference, 0.49; 95% CI, –0.04–1.02; P = 0.07; I2 = 0%). Conclusion: The result of our study showed that EGDT significantly reduced mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Paradoxically, EGDT increased the length of hospital stay compared to usual routine care.
Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of health care providers regarding anaphylaxis and its management at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to interns, MBBS Phase II students, and nursing students. The subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire, which included questions regarding anaphylaxis and its management. Results: Of 265 subjects, 151 (56.9%) of subjects answered correctly that adrenaline is the first line of drug for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Among 151 subjects, 40 (26.4%) answered the correct dose of adrenaline, of which 25 (16.5%) subjects selected intramuscular injection as the most appropriate route of administration. Medical students′ performance was better than interns and nursing students on questions regarding dose, route, and site of adrenaline administration. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the management of anaphylaxis was inadequate in almost all the health care providers who were included in the study. Improved education and training of health care providers are necessary for better management of anaphylaxis.
We report a case of 27-year-old female diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) following a recent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A known case of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis on corticosteroids for last 6 months presented to the critical care unit with fever, maculopapular rash and difficulty in breathing. A rapid and correct diagnosis with the precise treatment led to complete recovery of this patient. The HLH is a rare complication of primary EBV infection.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a clinic pathologic entity characterized by increased proliferation and activation of benign macrophages with hemophagocytosis throughout the reticuloendothelial system. It is a potentially lethal disorder due to an uncontrolled immune response to a triggering agent. HPS may be primary, or secondary to malignancy, infections, auto-immune diseases, and pharmacotherapy. HPS is a rare, but life-threatening complication. Herein, we described a female patient with HPS with secondary sepsis. Our objective was to raise the importance of early diagnosis of HFS by presenting a representative case.
Shams-ali Hadizadeh Moallem,
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Sadeghi M, Moallem SH, Yousefi-Abdolmaleki E, Montazeri M. The rabies early death phenomenon: A report of ineffective administration of rabies vaccine during symptomatic disease. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (7):422-424.
It was reported that in some individuals who received postexposure rabies vaccine, clinical features of rabies developed at the shorter time compared to individuals who were exposed, but not received the vaccine, which called \"early death\" phenomenon. We reported an early death phenomenon in a 67-year-old woman who was bitten by a jackal, although receiving three dose of rabies vaccine. Results show that the immune response to rabies has a dual role, sometimes has a favorable effect on survival but sometimes amplification the disease.
Nanda Kumar K.,
Veena R. Shah,
Beena K. Parikh,
A 48-year-old female patient with end-stage renal failure developed unexplained severe lactic acidosis (LA) associated with hyperglycemia during robotic-assisted laparoscopic renal transplantation. Initial treatment with sodium bicarbonate and insulin infusion were ineffective in treating acidemia. Postoperatively, intravenous administration of thiamine resulted in rapid improvement of LA and blood sugar levels. Uremia and chronic hemodialysis might be the causes behind the quantitative/qualitative deficiency of thiamine unmasked during the surgical stress. Though a rare entity, acute thiamine deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained severe LA in patients with chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis who undergo major surgery or admitted to critical illness care units.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
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Al-Mendalawi MD. Complications during the management of pediatric refractory status epilepticus with benzodiazepine and pentobarbital infusions. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (7):431-432.
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Extra corporeal carbon dioxide removal: A reliable modality in refractory hypercapnia to prevent invasive ventilation: Retraction. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015; 19 (7):438-438.