Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2016 | October | Volume 20 | Issue 10

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Niranjan Kissoon, Suchitra Ranjit, Rajeswari Natraj, Sathish Kandath, Paul Marik

Early norepinephrine decreases fluid and ventilatory requirements in pediatric vasodilatory septic shock

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:9] [Pages No:561 - 569]

Keywords: Critical illness, fluid infusion, morbidity, mortality, norepinephrine, pediatrics, sepsis, septic shock, vasodilatory, venous return

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192036  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: We previously reported that vasodilatation was common in pediatric septic shock, regardless of whether they were warm or cold, providing a rationale for early norepinephrine (NE) to increase venous return (VR) and arterial tone. Our primary aim was to evaluate the effect of smaller fluid bolus plus early-NE versus the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) approach to more liberal fluid boluses and vasoactive-inotropic agents on fluid balance, shock resolution, ventilator support and mortality in children with septic shock. Secondly, the impact of early NE on hemodynamic parameters, urine output and lactate levels was assessed using multimodality-monitoring. Methods: In keeping with the primary aim, the early NE group (N-27) received NE after 30ml/kg fluid, while the ACCM group (N-41) were a historical cohort managed as per the ACCM Guidelines, where after 40-60ml/kg fluid, patients received first line vasoactive-inotropic agents. The effect of early-NE was characterized by measuring stroke volume variation(SVV), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac function before and after NE, which were monitored using ECHO + Ultrasound-Cardiac-Output-Monitor (USCOM) and lactates. Results: The 6-hr fluid requirement in the early-NE group (88.9+31.3 to 37.4+15.1ml/kg), and ventilated days [median 4 days (IQR 2.5-5.25) to 1day (IQR 1-1.7)] were significantly less as compared to the ACCM group. However, shock resolution and mortality rates were similar. In the early NE group, the overall SVRI was low (mean 679.7dynes/sec/cm5/m2, SD 204.5), and SVV decreased from 23.8±8.2 to 18.5±9.7, p=0.005 with NE infusion suggesting improved preload even without further fluid loading. Furthermore, lactate levels decreased and urine-output improved. Conclusion: Early-NE and fluid restriction may be of benefit in resolving shock with less fluid and ventilator support as compared to the ACCM approach.



Nirmal Kumar

Validation of lactate clearance at 6 h for mortality prediction in critically ill children

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:570 - 574]

Keywords: Lactate clearance, mortality prediction, pediatric index of mortality 2 score, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192040  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and Aims: To validate the lactate clearance (LC) at 6 h for mortality prediction in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)-admitted patients and its comparison with a pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM 2) score. Design: A prospective, observational study in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Children <13 years of age, admitted to PICU were included in the study. Lactate levels were measured at 0 and 6 h of admission for clearance. LC and delayed or nonclearance group compared for in-hospital mortality and compared with PIM 2 score for mortality prediction. Results: Of the 140 children (mean age 33.42 months) who were admitted to PICU, 23 (16.42%) patients died. For LC cut-off (16.435%) at 6 h, 92 patients qualified for clearance and 48 for delayed or non-LC group. High mortality was observed (39.6%) in delayed or non-LC group as compared to clearance group (4.3%) (P = 0.000). LC cut-off of 16.435% at 6 h (sensitivity 82.6%, specificity 75.2%, positive predictive value 39.6%, and negative predictive value 95.7%) correlates with mortality. Area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for LC at 6 h for mortality prediction was 0.823 (P = 0.000). The area under ROC curve for expected mortality prediction by PIM 2 score at admission was 0.906 and at 12.3% cut-off of PIM 2 Score was related with mortality. The mean PIM 2 score was high in delayed or non-LC group (25.25%) compared to LC group (10.95%) (P = 0.004). Conclusion: LC cut-off <16.435% at 6 h was associated with high mortality.



Sara Ramtinfar, Shahrokh Chabok, Aliakbar Chari, Zoheir Reihanian, Ehsan Leili, Arsalan Alizadeh

Early detection of nonneurologic organ failure in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: Multiple organ dysfunction score or sequential organ failure assessment?

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:575 - 580]

Keywords: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, organ failure, sequential organ failure assessment, traumatic brain injury

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192042  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the discriminant function of multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) components in predicting the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality and neurologic outcome. Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytic study was conducted at a level I trauma center. Data were collected from patients with severe traumatic brain injury admitted to the neurosurgical ICU. Basic demographic data, SOFA and MOD scores were recorded daily for all patients. Odd′s ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the relationship of each component score to mortality, and area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to compare the discriminative ability of two tools with respect to ICU mortality. Results: The most common organ failure observed was respiratory detected by SOFA of 26% and MODS of 13%, and the second common was cardiovascular detected by SOFA of 18% and MODS of 13%. No hepatic or renal failure occurred, and coagulation failure reported as 2.5% by SOFA and MODS. Cardiovascular failure defined by both tools had a correlation to ICU mortality and it was more significant for SOFA (OR = 6.9, CI = 3.6-13.3, P < 0.05 for SOFA; OR = 5, CI = 3-8.3, P < 0.05 for MODS; AUROC = 0.82 for SOFA; AUROC = 0.73 for MODS). The relationship of cardiovascular failure to dichotomized neurologic outcome was not significant statistically. ICU mortality was not associated with respiratory or coagulation failure. Conclusion: Cardiovascular failure defined by either tool significantly related to ICU mortality. Compared to MODS, SOFA-defined cardiovascular failure was a stronger predictor of death. ICU mortality was not affected by respiratory or coagulation failures.



Mohammad Heidari, Parvin Ebrahimi

Examining the relationship between critical-thinking skills and decision-making ability of emergency medicine students

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:581 - 586]

Keywords: Decision-making, medical emergency, thinking

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192045  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and Aims: Critical-thinking ability would enable students to think creatively and make better decisions and makes them make a greater effort to concentrate on situations related to clinical matters and emergencies. This can bridge the gap between the clinical and theoretical training. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between critical-thinking ability and decision-making skills of the students of Emergency Medicine. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical research was conducted on all the students of medical emergency students (n = 86) in Shahrekord, Iran. The demographic information questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, and a decision-making researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using descriptive and analytical statistical tests and Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: The results of the present study indicate that the total mean score for the critical thinking was 8.32 ± 2.03 and for decision making 8.66 ± 1.89. There is a significant statistical relationship between the critical-thinking score and decision-making score (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although critical-thinking skills and decision-making ability are essential for medical emergency professional competence, the results of this study show that these skills are poor among the students.



Karen Lionel

Seizures - just the tip of the iceberg: Critical care management of super-refractory status epilepticus

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:587 - 592]

Keywords: Critical care management, status epilepticus, super refractory

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192047  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is defined as status epilepticus (SE) that continues or recurs 24 h or more after the onset of anesthetic therapy, including those cases where SE recurs on the reduction or withdrawal of anesthesia. Although SRSE is a rare clinical problem, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. This article reviews the treatment approaches and the systemic complications commonly encountered in patients with SRSE. As evident in our search of literature, therapy for SRSE and its complications have been based on clinical reports and expert opinions since there is a lack of controlled and randomized trials. Even though this complex condition starts as a neurological disorder, because of the associated systemic complications, it can be considered as a multisystem disorder requiring scrupulous attention and deliberate efforts to prevent, detect, and treat these systemic effects. We have critically reviewed the intensive care management for SRSE per se as well as its associated systemic complications. We believe that a good recovery can occur even after prolonged and severe SRSE as long as the systemic complications are detected early and managed appropriately.



Vijayanand Palaniswamy, Suganya Sadhasivam, Cibi Selvakumaran, Priyadharsan Jayabal, S. Ananth

Organ donation after brain death in India: A trained intensivist is the key to success

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:593 - 596]

Keywords: India, intensivist, mandatory training, organ donation, organ sharing

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192049  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Organ donation after brain death in India is gaining momentum but only in a few states. Tamil Nadu is leading in the country in this regard. Certain cities have performed well compared to Chennai′s results. A single tertiary hospital performed 28 donations in a 17 months period with a team of an intensivist and a transplant coordinator. An intensivist needs training and interest in this noble cause. There is no formal training program in this noble cause for doctors in India. A structured formal training needs to be introduced and made mandatory for the doctors in intensive care to make this donation process a successful program.



Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Muralidhar Varma, Shashaank Vallabhajosyula, Saarwaani Vallabhajosyula

Association of hyponatremia with in-hospital outcomes in infective endocarditis: A 5-year review from an Indian Intensive Care Unit

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:597 - 600]

Keywords: Heart failure, hospital outcomes, hyponatremia, India, infective endocarditis

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192051  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hyponatremia is commonly noted with cardiovascular disorders, but its role in infective endocarditis (IE) is limited to being a marker of increased morbidity in IE patients with intravenous drug use. This was a 5-year retrospective review from an Indian Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Patients >18 years with IE and available serum sodium levels were included in the study. Pediatric and pregnant patients were excluded from the study. Hyponatremia was defined as admission sodium <135 mmol/L. Detailed data were abstracted from the medical records. Primary outcomes were need for invasive mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included development of acute kidney injury, acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), acute respiratory distress syndrome, stroke, and severe sepsis in the ICU. Two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 96 patients with IE were admitted to the ICU with 85 (88.5%) (median age 46 [34.5-55] years, 51 [60.0%] males) meeting our inclusion criteria. The comorbidities, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics were comparable between patients with hyponatremia (56; 65.9%) and eunatremia (29; 34.1%). Median sodium in the hyponatremic cohort was 131 mmol/L (127.25-133) compared to the eunatremic cohort 137 mmol/L (135-139) (P < 0.001). The primary outcomes were not different between the two groups. Hyponatremia was associated more commonly with ADHF (12 [21.4%] vs. 0; P = 0.007) during the ICU stay. Hyponatremia is commonly seen in IE patients and is not associated with worse hospital outcomes. ADHF was seen more commonly in the hyponatremic patients in comparison to those with eunatremia.



Ipe Jacob, Pradeepkumar Hiremath

Pseudocholinesterase as a predictor of mortality and morbidity in organophosphorus poisoning

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:601 - 604]

Keywords: Atropine, Glasgow coma scale, morbidity, organophosphorus poisoning, pseudocholinesterase

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192052  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem in India. Mortality rate remains high at 15%-30%. Aims: This prospective, observational study examines the relationship between pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity and morbidity and mortality in OP poisoning. Setting and Design: OP poisoning cases admitted to a tertiary care center Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over 5 years from 2010 to 2014 were studied. Methods: Patients <16 years of age, those on steroids and those with neuromuscular weakness, were excluded from the study. Serum PChE level at admission was estimated and the severity of poisoning assessed accordingly. Primary outcome measures were ICU length of stay and ventilator-free days. Secondary outcome measures included vasopressor-free days, amount of atropine given, hospital length of stay, and ICU mortality. Results: There were 37 patients included in the study, aged between 24 and 44 years, of which 65% were male. They were divided into two groups according to PChE levels. Group A with PChE levels more than 1000 IU/L had twenty patients and Group B with levels <1000 IU/L had 17 patients. Group B had longer ICU length of stay (P < 0.001) and fewer ventilator-free days (P < 0.001). They also had a fewer vasopressor-free days and a longer stay in hospital. Conclusions: PChE level at presentation is a reliable indicator of the severity of OP poisoning and a predictor of the need for mechanical ventilation and the duration of stay in the ICU.



Amit Gupta, Vikas Sikri, Alok Jain

A rare case of movement disorder in Intensive Care Unit

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:3] [Pages No:605 - 607]

Keywords: Dilapidating, hemichorea-hemiballismus, movement disorder, refractory

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192055  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hemichorea-hemiballismus syndrome (HCHB represents a peculiar form of hyperkinetic movement disorder with varying degrees of chorea and/or ballistic movements on one side of body. The patients are conscious of their environment but unable to control the movements. HCHB is a rare occurrence in acute stroke patients. Patients with sub-cortical strokes are more prone to develop movement disorders than with cortical stroke. We report one such interesting case here posing difficulties in management and intensive care of the patient. The patient remained refractory to all the drugs described in literature, and adequate control of the hyperkinetic movements could be achieved only with continuous intravenous sedation.



Navneet Singh, Nalini Gupta, Kuruswamy Prasad, Inderpaul Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria

Endoscopic ultrasound (with an echobronchoscope)-guided fine-needle aspiration for diagnosis of a mediastinal lesion in a mechanically ventilated patient: A case report and systematic review of the literature

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:608 - 612]

Keywords: Bronchoscopy, echobronchoscope, endobronchial ultrasound, interventional pulmonology, lung cancer, mediastinal mass

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192057  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is routinely used for accessing mediastinal lymph nodes and masses. However, in patients with respiratory failure, who are being mechanically ventilated through an endotracheal tube, EBUS-TBNA may not be feasible due to several reasons. In such patients, the esophageal route offers a useful alternative for accessing mediastinal lesions. Herein, we describe a 50-year-old man with a mediastinal mass, who was being invasively ventilated for respiratory failure. Endoscopic ultrasound (with an echobronchoscope)-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed, which revealed a diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Appropriate cancer chemotherapy resulted in successful liberation of the patient from mechanical ventilation. We have also performed a systematic review of literature for reports of endoscopic diagnostic procedures for mediastinal/hilar lesions in critically ill patients.



Nikhil Anish, Abiy Gabremedhin

An encounter with enalapril-induced resistant, life-threatening angioedema at rural health center in Botswana

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:613 - 616]

Keywords: Angioedema, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, difficult airway, enalapril, fresh-frozen plasma

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192060  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Angioedema, a rare, potentially fatal and usually self-limiting adverse effect of therapy with enalapril, is always a challenging encounter for an intensive care specialist in a rural setup. Here, we present a 74-year-old female, who presented to the Emergency Department of Sekgoma Memorial Hospital, Serowe village, Botswana, with progressive swelling of her face, tongue and breathing difficulty just 2 days after starting tablet enalapril. She failed to respond to usual treatment with adrenaline, steroids, and H1-antihistaminic agent, but she responded well with intravenous fresh-frozen plasma infusion. This helped us manage a difficult airway situation in a less equipped rural health center.



Pilar Anton-Martin, Cindy Darnell-Bowens, Victor Aquino, Teresa Jones, Lakshmi Raman

Successful engraftment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with infusion of donor stem cells through the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:3] [Pages No:617 - 619]

Keywords: Engraftment, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192062  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency due to mutations in the WAS gene expressed in hematopoietic cells. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice when an appropriate human leukocyte antigen-matched donor is available. The use of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit to infuse donor cells for HSCT has not been previously published in the literature. We describe a case of a child who had successful engraftment after HSCT with infusion of the donor stem cells through the ECMO circuit.



Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after intracranial stenting of the middle cerebral artery

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:620 - 621]

Keywords: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome, cerebral revascularization complication, intracranial stenting and cerebral hyperperfusion

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192064  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare complication following cerebral revascularization. It presents with ipsilateral headache, seizures, and intracerebral hemorrhage. It has mostly been described following extracranial carotid endarterectomy and stenting and it is very unusual after intracranial stenting. A 71-year-old man with a stuttering stroke was taken up for a cerebral angiogram (digital subtraction angiography), which showed a dissection of the distal left middle cerebral artery. This was recanalized with a solitaire AB stent. After 12 h, the patient developed a right hemiplegia and aphasia. Computed tomography brain showed two discrete intracerebral hematomas in the left hemisphere. This is the first reported case of CHS following intracranial stenting from India.



Kajal Patel, Shruti Gandhi, Harsh Sutariya

Radial artery pseudoaneurysm: A rare complication after a single arterial puncture for blood-gas analysis

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:622 - 626]

Keywords: Doppler ultrasound, pseudoaneurysm, radial artery

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192066  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


With a reported incidence of 0.048%, radial artery pseudoaneurysm (PA) is a rare but serious complication of arterial cannulation. We report a case of PA developing after a single puncture of the right radial artery for arterial blood-gas analysis diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in young male patient. The development of PA after puncture of radial artery for continuous blood pressure monitoring and serial blood-gas analysis has been reported in the past; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is only one case report of development of PA after a single arterial puncture for blood-gas analysis is reported in the past.



Ali Firoozabadi, Zeynab Nasri-Nasrabadi, Sayed Marashi

Management of indoxacarb poisoning in a regional setting

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:627 - 628]

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192067  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



P. Sai Saran

Complications and benefits of intrahospital transport of adult Intensive Care Unit patients

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:628 - 629]

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.192069  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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