Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2016 | March | Volume 20 | Issue 3

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Koichi Ohsugi, Toru Kotani, Satoshi Fukuda, Yoko Sato, Satoshi Toyama, Makoto Ozaki

Does vasopressin improve the mortality of septic shock patients treated with high-dose NA

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:137 - 140]

Keywords: Lactate clearance, noradrenalin, septic shock, vasopressin

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178175  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim of Study: In Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012, noradrenalin (NA) is recommended as a first choice vasopressor. Although vasopressin (VP) is recommended for the treatment of NA-resistant septic shock, the optimal parameters for its administration remain unclear. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the administration of VP to adult septic shock patients who were undergoing high-dose NA (≥0.25 μg/kg/min) therapy in our Intensive Care Unit between January 2010 and December 2013. We defined high-dose NA as a dose of >0.25 μg/kg/min, based on the definition of low-dose NA as a dose of 5-14 μg/min because the average body weight of the patients in this study was 53.0 kg. Results: Among 29 patients who required the administration of high-dose NA, 18 patients received VP. Although the patient background physiological conditions and NA dose did not differ between the two groups, the survival rate of the VP-treated patients was significantly lower (33%) than that of the patients who were managed with a high-dose of NA-alone (82%) (P = 0.014). The lactate clearance did not change after the administration of VP, whereas it improved when in NA treatment alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that the administration of VP did not improve the mortality among septic shock patients when administered in addition to high-dose NA.



Pranati Gupte, Narasimman Swaminathan

Nurse′s perceptions of physiotherapists in critical care team: Report of a qualitative study

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:141 - 145]

Keywords: Interprofessional relationships, multidisciplinary team, nursing, physiotherapy, teamwork

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178176  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Interprofessional relationship plays a major role in effective patient care. Specialized units such as critical care require multidisciplinary care where perception about every members role may affect the delivery of patient care. The objective of this study was to find out nurses′ perceptions of the role of physiotherapists in the critical care team. Methods: Qualitative study by using semi-structured interview was conducted among the qualified nurses working in the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital. The interview consisted of 19 questions divided into 3 sections. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. In-depth content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research question. Results: Analysis identified five major issues which included role and image of a physiotherapist, effectiveness of treatment, communications, teamwork, and interprofessional relations. Physiotherapists were perceived to be an important member of the critical team with the role of mobilizing the patients. The respondents admitted that there existed limitations in interprofessional relationship. Conclusion: Nurses perceived the role of physiotherapist in the critical care unit as an integral part and agreed on the need for inclusion of therapist multidisciplinary critical care team.



Alaa Gouda, Saad M. Alqahtani

Do not resuscitate: An expanding role for critical care response team

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:146 - 149]

Keywords: Critical care, do not resuscitate, end-of-life care, ethics, intensive care, rapid response team

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178177  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) order is an important aspect of medical practice. Since the implementation of critical care response team (CCRT), frequently we have encountered with patients in the wards that should have been made DNR. Initiating DNR became an important part of CCRT activity. We were obliged to extended the role of CCRT - beyond managing seriously ill patients - in addressing the code status for patients after discussion with the managing teams. Purpose: We compare the trend of initiation of DNR orders in the regular ward before and after implementing CCRT. Methods: Our hospital is 1200 bed tertiary care center. CCRT has been launched in January 1, 2008. The CCRT is 24/7 service led by in-house North American certified intensivists. Cohort analysis of prospectively collected data of 5406 CCRT activation from January 1, 2008, to September 30, 2013. Data before implementation of CCRT was available for 299 patients from the period of June 1, 2007, to December 31, 2007. A comparison made between the two groups (before and after implementation of CCRT) for demographic data and percentage of patients in whom DNR order initiated. Results: Before CCRT implementation, 299 patients were attended by Intensive Care Unit physician for regular consultation, 41.1% were females and 52.4% were males with mean of age 58.44 ± 18.47 standard deviation (SD). DNR was initiated in 2.7% of patients. After CCRT implementation, 5904 CCRT activations, 47.6% females and 52.4% males with mean of age 59.17 ± 20.07 SD DNR initiated in 468 (7.9%) of cases. There was 5.2% increase in DNR orders initiation and completion after CCRT introduced to our institute. Conclusion: CCRT plays an important role in addressing and initiating DNR.



Dhanesh R. Kamerkar, M. Joseph John, Sanjay C. Desai, Liesel C. Dsilva, Sadhna J. Joglekar

Arrive: A retrospective registry of Indian patients with venous thromboembolism

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:9] [Pages No:150 - 158]

Keywords: Anticoagulants, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, retrospective registry, venous thromboembolism

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178178  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and Aim: There is lack of substantial Indian data on venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to provide real-world information on patient characteristics, management strategies, clinical outcomes, and temporal trends in VTE. Subjects and Methods: Multicentre retrospective registry involving 549 medical records of patients with confirmed diagnosis of VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography; pulmonary embolism [PE] by computed tomography, pulmonary angiography and/or V/Q scan) from 2006 to 2010 at three Indian tertiary care hospitals. Results: Acute DVT without PE, acute DVT with PE, and PE alone were reported in 64% (352/549), 23% (124/549), and 13% (73/549) patients, respectively. Mean age was 47 (±16) years, and 70% were males. H/o DVT (34%), surgery including orthopedic surgery (28%), trauma (16%), and immobilization >3 days (14%) were the most common risk factors for VTE. Hypertension (25%), diabetes (19%), and neurological disease (other than stroke) (8%) were the most common co-morbidities. Most (94%) were treated with heparin alone (82%) or fondaparinux (2%) for initial anticoagulation; low molecular weight heparin alone (5%) or warfarin/acenocoumarol (76%) for long-term anticoagulation. Anticoagulant treatment was stopped because of bleeding in 2% (9/515) patients. Mortality was 7% among patients diagnosed with VTE during hospital stay versus 1% in those hospitalized with diagnosed VTE. The annual incidence of DVT (±PE) increased from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: Acute DVT alone was responsible for the substantial burden of VTE in Indian patients. Bleeding was not the limiting factor for anticoagulant treatment in most patients.



Gautam Ahluwalia, Amit Bansal, Tirath Singh

Outcome and predictors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit in North India

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:159 - 163]

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Intensive Care Units, outcome study, survival rate, tertiary care

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178179  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Outcome and predictors of survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) have been extensively studied in western world, but data from developing countries is sparse. Objectives: To study the outcome and predictors of survival after CPR in a Medical ICU (MICU) of a tertiary level teaching hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: A 1-year prospective cohort study. Results: Of 105 in-MICU CPRs, forty patients (38.1%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Only one patient (0.9%) survived up to hospital discharge. The predictors of ROSC were ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation as first monitored rhythm, intubation during CPR and CPR duration ≤ 10 min. CPR duration > 10 min was a significant factor for resuscitation failure. Conclusions: The rate of survival to hospital discharge after in-MICU CPRs is extremely poor. Our data may aid treating physicians, resuscitation teams, and families in understanding the likely outcome of patients after in-MICU CPRs.



Abdurrahman Sahin, Fatih Mehmet Yazar, Burhan Hakan Kanat, Seyfi Emir, Mehmet Buõra Bozan, Yilmaz Bilgiç, Fatih Erol, Zeynep Özkan, Evrim Gül, Aykut Urfalioõlu

An obstruction not to forget: Pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome): Single center experience

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:164 - 168]

Keywords: Morbidity, mortality, neostigmine, Ogilvie syndrome

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178180  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: Colonic pseudo obstruction disease commonly seen in the elderly, immobile patient group can cause serious mortality and morbidity. Our objective in this retrospective study is to share our clinical experience by evaluating patients with Ogilvie syndrome who were followed and treated in our clinic. Methods: Eleven cases with the diagnosis of Ogilvie syndrome followed up and treated between September 2010 and April 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. All the patients that had no symptoms of acute abdominal pain were initiated conservative treatment. Colonoscopic decompression was attempted for patients whose clinical pictures were not recovered. Patients underwent operation if they developed peritoneal irritation symptoms during these procedures and of their number of white blood cells seriously increased during the follow-up period. Results: A total of 11 patients were treated for Ogilvie syndrome. 6 of the patients underwent surgical treatment, and 5 were treated medically. Mortality developed in two patients. The main cause of mortality was a delay in diagnosis and additional severe underlying diseases. Seven patients were given Neostigmine. Of these, 2 patients required surgery and 3 patients responded to Neostigmine. Conclusion: Ogilvie syndrome is a rare cause of ileus of the colon. It is more common particularly in old patients with additional problems. If the disease is suspected and diagnosed early, unnecessary surgical interventions can be prevented with medical treatment choices.



Prasanna Udupi Bidkar

Advanced pressure control modes of ventilation in cardiac surgery: Scanty evidence or unexplored terrain?

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:169 - 172]

Keywords: Advanced pressure control modes, cardiac surgery, ventilation

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178181  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Lung atelectasis resulting after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can result in increased intrapulmonary shunting and consequent hypoxemia. Advanced pressure control modes of ventilation might have at least a theoretical advantage over conventional modes by assuring a minimum target tidal volume delivery at reasonable pressures, thus having potential advantages while ventilating patients with pulmonary atelectasis postcardiac surgery. However, the utility of these modes in the post-CPB setting have not been widely investigated, and their role in cardiac intensive care, therefore, remains quite limited.



Arvind Kumar Baronia

Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:173 - 177]

Keywords: Acute pancreatitis, calcium, hypocalcemia

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178182  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients.



Y. Brouh, Konan Kouassi Jean, A. Ouattara, Y. Tétchi, Y. Pete, N. Koffi, C. Abhé, M. Kane

Brain lesions in eclampsia: A series of 39 cases admitted in an Intensive Care Unit

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:178 - 181]

Keywords: Brain computed tomography, brain lesions, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178183  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The aim of this study was to identify the encephalic lesions in the eclampsia occurrences. Within a period of 18 months, computed tomography (CT) of the brain was performed in all patients admitted in intensive care for eclampsia. These CTs were analyzed and intracerebral lesions were identified. Thirty-nine patients were included. We noted 10 cases of ischemic stroke, 9 cases of cerebral edema, and 3 cases of hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The CT scan came back to normal in 20 eclamptic patients. Overall, delays in obstetric and intensive care and time of completion of the CT were long. CT has allowed highlighting in patients with eclampsia varied intracerebral lesions. The early performance of the CT is therefore essential for a better support of patients.



M. Madhu Bashini, V. P. Rajavel, Vigil Rahulan

Complications and management of attempted suicide by intrapleural injection of prallethrin

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:182 - 184]

Keywords: Fibrinolytic agent, intrapleural injection, prallethrin

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178184  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


We describe the unusual presentation and management of complications of intrapleural prallethrin injection in this case report. The pathologic process is distinct from the usual toxicity secondary to effect on ionic channels of the nervous system.



Bibek S. Pannu, Devang K. Sanghavi, Pramod K. Guru, Dereddi Raja Reddy, Vivek N. Iyer

Fatal right ventricular failure and pulmonary hypertension after protamine administration during cardiac transplantation

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:185 - 187]

Keywords: Protamine, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178185  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Protamine sulfate is the only Food and Drug administration approved medication for reversal of intraoperative heparin-induced anticoagulation during cardiac and vascular surgeries. One of the rare side effects of protamine sulfate is an idiosyncratic reaction resulting in acute pulmonary hypertension (APH) and right ventricular (RV) failure occurring after protamine administration. These reactions are rare but catastrophic with high mortality. A 36-year-old female with severe congestive heart failure was undergoing cardiac transplant surgery. After successful implantation of the donor heart, the patient was weaned off cardiopulmonary bypass. Protamine was then administered to reverse the heparin anticoagulation. She immediately developed APH and RV failure immediately after protamine infusion. The patient required immediate administration of inotropic agents, nitric oxide (NO), and subsequently required a number of mechanical support devices including an RV assist device (RVAD) and ultimately full veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). Despite heroic efforts, the patient developed refractory multi-organ failure in the Intensive Care Unit and died after family requested discontinuation of resuscitative efforts. This case probably represents the first reported occurrence of fatal protamine-induced APH and ventricular failure in the setting of cardiac transplantation surgery. A number of interventions including inhaled NO, systemic vasopressors, RVAD, and ultimately VA-ECMO failed to reverse the situation, and the patient died of multi-organ failure.



Binita Panigrahi, Devi Prasad Samaddar, Tushar Kumar

Inadvertent migration of guidewire into Murphy′s eye of endotracheal tube during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:188 - 190]

Keywords: Complications, guidewire, impaction, percutaneous tracheostomy

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178186  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is a commonly performed bedside procedure in the Intensive Care Unit. Although serious and fatal complications have been reported, the procedure is by and large safe to perform in experienced hands. We report here an innocuous problem encountered twice. After the guidewire insertion and dilatation, subsequent railroading became difficult owing to migration of guidewire into the Murphy′s eye of the endotracheal tube (ETT). Awareness about this possibility can avert inadvertent delays and complications during the procedure. A tug or gentle pulling of ETT after insertion of the guidewire rules out an impaction in the eye or other part of the ETT.



Pratibha Dube, Richa Saroa, Sanjeev Palta

Coinfections in Intensive Care Unit with pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis: A clinical dilemma

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:191 - 193]

Keywords: Coinfection, diabetes mellitus, mucormycosis, pulmonary tuberculosis

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178187  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Herein, we present the case report of an adult male diabetic patient who had coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and mucormycosis, which otherwise is a rare clinical entity. Diabetes mellitus may predispose a patient to tuberculosis (TB) infection which further weakens immune system thus making him susceptible to other fungal or bacterial infections which may pose various treatment difficulties. Therefore, there is a need for mycological and bacteriological investigations in patients with pulmonary TB to rule out secondary coinfections thus contributing to better management.



Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Pulmonary and extrapulmonary not so similar

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:194 - 197]

Keywords: Acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, esophageal pressure, lung compliance, transpulmonary pressure

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178188  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute onset respiratory failure with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia. Current evidence suggests different respiratory mechanics in pulmonary ARDS (ARDSp) and extrapulmonary ARDS (ARDSexp) with disproportionate decrease in lung compliance in the former and chest wall compliance in the latter. Herein, we report two patients of ARDS, one each with ARDSp and ARDSexp that were managed using real-time esophageal pressure monitoring using the AVEA ventilator to tailor the ventilatory strategy.



Pralay Shankar Ghosh

Impact of dialysis practice patterns on outcomes in acute kidney injury in Intensive Care Unit

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:198 - 198]

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178189  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Abdul Hameed, Fauzia Shifaat, Mehraj Ud Din, Shoaib Budoo, Shoaib Khanday, Arshi Taj

An unusual case of acute poisoning with paraformaldehyde, benzoic acid, and kaolin

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:198 - 199]

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178190  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Hariom Khandelwal, Vinay Rai, Dev Singh Jangpangi

Scrub typhus: Experience in management of cases with pulmonary involvement in critical care unit

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:200 - 201]

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178191  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



R. K. Mani

Retraction: Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma following a snake bite: Are we missing it?

[Year:2016] [Month:] [Volume:20] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:202 - 202]

   DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.178192  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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