Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2017 | April | Volume 21 | Issue 4

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Manimala Surath, Palepu B. N. Gopal, Rahul Amte

Quality indicators compliance survey in Indian intensive care units

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:187 - 191]

Keywords: Critical care, infection control, patient care, quality indicators, survey

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_164_15  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: The quality of health care and outcomes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) have been a major subject of discussion in the past decade. Quality indicators in ICUs maintain an order of uniformity and standard care of delivery across ICUs. Aims: In this study, we tried to analyze the percentage compliance of quality indicators in ICU across our country. Methods: Four hundred complete questionnaire forms were collected in two stages by means of conducting a survey and through email responses to the survey questionnaire. Data were tabulated and evaluated in percentage responses. Results: Monitoring of infection control measures such as hand hygiene (77%), monitoring of ICU-acquired infections (>75%), and quality and policy measures (>70%) were promising. Improvements are required in following end-of-life pathways (52%) and staffing patterns in ICU. ICU discharge timings (41%), standardized mortality ratio monitoring (39%), and multidisciplinary rounds (58%) in ICUs are few areas we need to develop further. Conclusion: The future of critical care looks promising with growing number of trained intensivists and hospitals functioning with an average ICU bed strength of 30–40. Such surveys need to be performed regularly to improve the patient care and safety across ICUs.



Sharmila Sengupta, Navin Kumar, Amarjeet Kaur

Respiratory multiplex polymerase chain reaction: An important diagnostic tool in immunocompromised patients

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:192 - 198]

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, immunocompromised patients, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Pneumocystis jirovecii

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_2_17  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Viruses and atypical pathogens can cause significant respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) has improved the diagnostic yield of pathogens, and it is easier to identify the co-infections also. The present study was done to evaluate the performance of MPCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in immunocompromised patients. Methods: Atotal of 177 BAL specimens collected over a 19 months period from immunocompromised patients with respiratory illness were analyzed with the MPCR and aerobic culture. Patients were divided into four according to the pathogens. Category V (only viral), Category NV (nonviral, i.e., bacteria and atypical), Category M (mixed, i.e., both viral and nonviral pathogen), and Category UK (unknown etiology). Results: MPCR identified the causative pathogen in 59.3% of patients while culture could identify only in 37.8% of patients. Most frequent etiological agent was Klebsiella pneumoniae (32%), followed by cytomegalovirus (21%), and Pneumocystis jirovecii (10%). Numbers of patients in each category were Category V (9.6%), Category NV (43.5%), Category M (19.8%), and Category UK (27.1%). Mortality was significantly higher in patients of Category M having mixed infections. Conclusion: MPCR is highly sensitive and rapid tool which can be considered in the routine diagnostic algorithm of respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients.



Prakash Vipul, Consul Shuchi, Agarwal Avinash, Gutch Manish, Kumar Sukriti, Prakash Ved

Correlation of serum vitamin D level with mortality in patients with sepsis

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:199 - 204]

Keywords: Hospital stay, sepsis, Vitamin D deficiency

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_192_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in the critically ill. Recently, it has been found in many studies that many trace elements and nutrients do have an effect on human body and if supplemented can improve the prognosis in patients with sepsis. Aim and Objectives: Primary Objective: Whether low Vitamin D is associated with mortality. Secondary Objective: To find out association of low Vitamin D levels and morbidity in terms of length of hospital and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay. Subjects and Methods: Following ethical approval, consent will be sought from either the patient or assent from a near relative. Successive patients admitted to the medical emergency and ICU at tertiary care health center who fulfill the following criteria for sepsis, within a 24 h time window, were included in the study. Results: Among 88 patients evaluated in our study 15 patients (18.2%) were found to have adequate Vitamin D levels and seven patients (8%) were found insufficient and rest 52 patients (73.9%) were found deficient in Vitamin D. Age of the patients ranged between 18 and 82 years with mean (±standard deviation) 45.02 ± 17.69 years. Mean Vitamin D level was found significantly higher among patients with positive outcome than those with unfavorable outcome (expiry) (t = 2.075, P = 0.04). On comparison of the length of hospital stay (morbidity) with Vitamin D levels, we found statistically significant inverse relation between Vitamin D levels and length of hospital stay. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency leads to increased risk of mortality in the critically ill along with prolonged hospital stay.



Gholamreza Masoumi, Roohangiz Jamshidi-Orak, Hesam Seyedin

Development and psychometric evaluation of the pre-hospital medical emergencies early warning scale

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:205 - 212]

Keywords: Early Warning Scale, emergency care, pre-hospital marker, scoring system

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_49_17  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The number of requests for emergency medical services (EMSs) has increased during the past decade. However, most of the transports are not essential. Therefore, it seems crucial to develop an instrument to help EMS staff accurately identify patients who need pre-hospital care and transportation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale (Pre-MEWS). Materials and Methods: This mixed-method study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qualitative content analysis study was conducted to identify the predictors of medical patients' need for pre-hospital EMS and transportation. In the second phase, the face and the content validity as well as the internal consistency of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the items of the scale were scored and scoring system was presented. Results: The final version of the scale contained 22 items and its total score ranged from 0 to 54. Conclusions: Pre-MEWS helps EMS staffs properly understand medical patients' conditions in pre-hospital environments and accurately identify their need for EMS and transportation.



Anirban Hom Choudhuri, Mitali Chakravarty

Influence of admission source on the outcome of patients in an intensive care unit

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:213 - 217]

Keywords: Intensive Care Unit admission source, ICU admission score, outcome

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_7_17  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim of the study: The admission in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) occurs from various sources, and the outcome depends on a complex interplay of various factors. This observational study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology and compare the differences among patients admitted in a tertiary care ICU directly from the emergency room, wards, and ICUs of other hospitals. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 153 consecutive patients admitted from various sources in a tertiary care ICU between July 2014 and December 2015. The primary endpoint of the study was the influence of the admission source on ICU mortality. The secondary endpoints were the comparison of the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and the ICU complication rates between the groups. Results: Out of the 153 patients enrolled, the mortality of patients admitted from the ICUs of other hospital were significantly higher than the patients admitted directly from the emergency room or wards/operating rooms (60.5% vs. 48.2% vs. 31.9%; P = 0.02). The incidence of ventilator-associated lung injury was lower in the patients admitted directly from the emergency room (23.4% vs. 50% vs. 50%; P = 0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed higher age, increased disease severity, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and longer ICU stay as independent predictors of mortality in the patients shifted from the ICUs of other hospitals. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a higher risk of ICU mortality among patients shifted from the ICUs of other hospitals and identified the independent predictors of mortality.



Pankaj Verma, Upendra Baitha, Tej Prakash Sinha, Prakash Ranjan Mishra

Gender-based assessment of survival in trauma-hemorrhagic shock: A retrospective analysis of Indian population

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:218 - 223]

Keywords: Mode of injury, road traffic crash, systolic blood pressure, trauma-hemorrhagic shock

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_304_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS) is a leading cause of death. Female rats and women experience better outcomes in terms of survival after major trauma as compared to males. There are limited data in Indian population. Authors studied the gender-based outcome of patients with Class IV hemorrhagic shock due to blunt trauma and the distribution of factors among males and females which are known to affect outcome. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study with data of trauma victims between January 2008 and July 2013. Road traffic crash (RTC), fall, or assault of all ages with Class IV hemorrhagic shock on arrival was included in the study, and data were collected on demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters. Drowning, burns, penetrating injuries, and septic, neurogenic, and cardiogenic shock were excluded from the study. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-one patients were analyzed under three groups: (i) overall group including all patients (n = 781), (ii) male group (n = 609), and (iii) female group (n = 172). After adjusting all variables, mortality was significantly lower in females as compared to males following THS (P < 0.05). Age, blood pressure, pulse, male gender, and fall and RTC as mode of injury (MOI) were independent predictors of mortality (P < 0.05) in overall group. Among males, age, pulse, and RTC as a MOI were significant (P < 0.05), while in females, only systolic blood pressure (SBP) was independent predictor of mortality. Conclusion: Females had better survival as compared to males following THS. SBP was an independent predictor of mortality in females with THS.



Aishwarya Karthikeyan, S. Deepak Amalnath

Abrus precatorius poisoning: A retrospective study of 112 patients

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:224 - 225]

Keywords: Abrus precatorius, case series, India, poisoning

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_320_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Abrus precatorius is a rare but important cause of plant poisoning, especially in tropical countries like India. Most of the published literature on Abrus is limited a few case reports. Hence, we did a retrospective study the clinical features and outcome of Abrus poisoning. Case records of patients admitted to medicine wards during 7 years were included in the study. A total of 112 patients were studied. The majority were females (78%), and most of the patients were between 13 and 30 years (81%). Diarrhea was the most common symptom (66%), and blood in stools was present in (33%). Six patients had died with a mortality rate of (5.35%).



Abhijit S. Gavali, Sandip Bartakke

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a case of dengue fever: A rare presentation

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:226 - 228]

Keywords: ADAMTS13, dengue fever, plasma exchange therapy, rare case presentation, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_27_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Here, we present an unusual occurrence of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in a case of dengue fever. Both the conditions are fatal and can result in significant mortality and morbidity if left untreated. In this case, as soon as, we diagnosed the patient as having TTP, we treated her with plasma exchange therapy, steroids, and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab. The patient responded very well to the treatment and completely recovered from neurological symptoms and laboratory parameters also normalized. Hence, timely diagnosis and starting appropriate treatment immediately are key factors for successful outcome.



Ashok Pannu, M. B. Adarsh

Not all febrile critical illness with rash is infective: Drug reaction may be a mimic

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:229 - 231]

Keywords: Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, LEMDS, multi-organ dysfunction, tropical fever

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_397_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


We report a case of ciprofloxacin-related drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) which was initially diagnosed and managed on the line of tropical fever. Later, a diagnosis of definite case of DRESS was made according to the RegiSCAR scoring system and the patient was managed with the removal of ciprofloxacin along with steroids. DRESS is a great masquerader. The diagnosis should be highly suspected in the presence of fever, skin rash, liver involvement, and hypereosinophilia.



Ramanan Rajagopal

Hyperemia causing delayed recovery in traumatic brain injury

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:232 - 234]

Keywords: Hyperemia, traumatic brain injury, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_346_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a common manifestation of traumatic brain injury. A clinical deterioration in Glasgow Coma Scale score without an accompanying radiological worsening is suggestive of vasospasm. However, hyperemia could be another possibility which can easily be considered with corroborating transcranial Doppler (TCD) features. This case report reiterates the value of TCD in such instances.



Sameer N. Desai, Santosh K. Dasar, V Mithali

Malposition of the central venous catheter: A diagnostic dilemma

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:235 - 237]

Keywords: Central venous catheter, complications, malposition

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_338_14  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A 50-year-old male was admitted to Intensive Care Unit with head and chest injury needed multiple central venous catheter (CVC) for the long-term intravenous access. Right internal jugular vein was cannulated uneventfully, and the tip of CVC was confirmed in the chest radiograph along the right border of the mediastinum. After few days, left subclavian vein was cannulated and the procedure was uneventful. However, the postprocedure Chest X-ray showed the CVC along the left border of mediastinum rather than the right border. Possibility of CVC in one of the tributaries of left brachiocephalic vein was thought. Due to uncertainty in position of left CVC, we inserted CVC in right-sided subclavian vein, which was in normal position along the right border of mediastinum. Left subclavian CVC was removed. Reviewing the patient's thoracic computed tomography scan revealed, patient had congenital anomaly and double superior vena cava that explained the abnormal course of left subclavian CVC along the left border of mediastinum.



Reddy Ravikanth, S. Sandeep, Babu Philip

Acute yellow phosphorus poisoning causing fulminant hepatic failure with parenchymal hemorrhages and contained duodenal perforation

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:238 - 242]

Keywords: Acute poisoning, antidote, duodenal perforation, hepatotoxin, intoxication, supportive treatment, yellow phosphorus

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_410_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


White phosphorus is well known as a potent hepatotoxin and a severe local and systemic toxin causing damage to gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiovascular, and renal systems. It is used in the manufacture of matches, fireworks, rodenticide, and fertilizers. Death results due to acute liver failure. Management of yellow phosphorus (YP) poisoning is supportive with no antidote available. Here, we present a case of acute YP poisoning in a 25-year-old female presenting with fulminant hepatic failure and duodenal perforation.



Kartik Munta, K. Seshikiran

Secondary Sjogren's syndrome presenting with distal tubular acidosis and quadriparesis

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:243 - 244]

Keywords: Distal renal tubular acidosis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypokalemia, Sjogren's syndrome

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_442_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A 52-year-old female patient was admitted to Intensive Care Unit with complaints of quadriparesis. Investigations revealed distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) secondary to Sjogren's syndrome with involvement of the parotid and thyroid glands. Laboratory investigations showed hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and an alkaline urine pH with clinical signs of sicca syndrome. Sjogren's syndrome is associated with DRTA and occurrences of quadriparetic hypokalemia, nephrolithiasis, and osteomalacia can be prevented with early diagnosis and lifelong treatment with potassium and alkali replacement.



Prabhat Kumar, Ghazal Tansir, Juhi Dixit

Symmetrical peripheral gangrene in severe Plasmodium vivax malaria

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:245 - 246]

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_424_16  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Omid Mehrpour

Cardiogenic shock: The main cause of mortality in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:246 - 247]

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_97_17  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



The tissue dilator: A victim or the aggressor?

[Year:2017] [Month:] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:247 - 248]

   DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_64_17  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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