Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2020 | October | Volume 24 | Issue 10

EDITORIAL

Rakesh Garg

Conscious Proning or Mixed Positioning for Improving Oxygenation—COVID-19 Bring Many Changes!

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:893 - 894]

Keywords: Oxygenation,Awake proning, Conscious proning, Hypoxemia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23624  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

EDITORIAL

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Treatment: It is Time for Stewardship!

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:895 - 896]

Keywords: Trigger tool,Adverse drug reactions, Coronavirus disease 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, COVID pneumonia, Emergency department, Pharmacovigilance, Therapeutic option

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23622  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

EDITORIAL

Subhal B Dixit

Role of Noninvasive Oxygen Therapy Strategies in COVID-19 Patients: Where are We Going?

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:897 - 898]

Keywords: COVID-19, High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, High-flow oxygen therapy, Mask oxygen, Non-Invasive Ventilation, NIV: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation, Oxygen

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23625  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

EDITORIAL

John Victor Peter

Approach to the Control of Antimicrobial Resistance: Are We Missing the Plot?

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:899 - 900]

Keywords: Antibiotic stewardship, Antimicrobial resistance, Cost

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23626  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

EDITORIAL

Rajeev Soman, Rakshitha Eashwernath

Bacteremia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus: A Name with an Ominous Significance?

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:901 - 902]

Keywords: Bacteremia, Endocarditis, Streptococcus gallolyticus

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23623  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Streptococcus bovis is an underrecognized agent of systemic infections. It underwent reclassification into different subtypes and is currently termed as Streptococcus gallolyticus. Bacteremia due to S. gallolyticus has been traditionally associated with colon cancer or hepatobiliary disease and can result in endocarditis. Detection of S. gallolyticus in blood cultures prompts a thorough clinical evaluation in order to clarify the source of the bloodstream infection and the presence of complications. Subspeciation is crucial to understand the disease association, which is now possible with the use of phenotypic detection methods, such as, Vitek 2. The retrospective study by Niyas et al. serves to call attention to this organism and optimal approach to management.

EDITORIAL

Saptharishi Lalgudi Ganesan, Narayanan Parameswaran

Composite Outcomes for Clinical Trials in Critical Care: The Devil is in the Detail

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:903 - 904]

Keywords: Composite outcome measures, Ventilator free days,Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Clinical trials

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23641  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

GUIDELINES

Mariya P Jiandani, Bela Agarwal, Gaurang Baxi, Sudeep Kale, Titiksha Pol, Anjali Bhise, Unnati Pandit, Jaimala V Shetye, Abhijit Diwate, Umanjali Damke, Savita Ravindra, Prajakta Patil, Raziya M Nagarwala, Pratibha Gaikwad, Shabnam Agarwal, Kushal Madan, Prasobh Jacob, Praveen J Surendran, Narasimman Swaminathan

Evidence-Based National Consensus: Recommendations for Physiotherapy Management in COVID-19 in Acute Care Indian Setup

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:9] [Pages No:905 - 913]

Keywords: Chest physiotherapy, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Early mobilization, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23564  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: With the Wuhan pandemic spread to India, more than a lakh of population were affected with COVID-19 with varying severities. Physiotherapists participated as frontline workers to contribute to management of patients in COVID-19 in reducing morbidity of these patients and aiding them to road to recovery. With infrastructure and patient characteristics different from West and lack of adequate evidence to existing practices, there was a need to formulate a national consensus. Materials and methods: Recommendations were formulated with a systematic literature search and feedback of physiotherapist experiences. Expert consensus was obtained using a modified Delphi method. Results: The intraclass coefficient of agreement between the experts was 0.994, significant at p < 0.001. Conclusion: This document offers physiotherapy evidence-based consensus and recommendation to planning physiotherapy workforce, assessment, chest physiotherapy, early mobilization, preparation for discharge planning, and safety for patients and therapist in acute-care COVID 19 setup of India. The recommendations have been integrated in the algorithm and are intended to use by all physiotherapists and other stakeholders in management of patients with COVID-19 in acute care settings.

Original Article

Prabhanjan Singh, Prerana Jain, Himanshu Deewan

Awake Prone Positioning in COVID-19 Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:914 - 918]

Keywords: Awake prone position, Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23546  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: WHO has declared SARS-CoV-2 as pandemic. Patients with COVID-19 present mainly with respiratory symptoms. Prone position has been traditionally used in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to improve oxygenation and prevent barotrauma in ventilated patients. Awake proning is being used as an investigational therapy in COVID to defer invasive ventilation, improve oxygenation, and outcomes. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case study to look for benefits of awake proning with oxygen therapy in non-intubated COVID patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective case study of 15 COVID patients admitted from June 15 to July 1, 2020 to HDU in our hospital was conducted. Co-operative patients who were hemodynamically stable and SpO2 < 90% on presentation were included. Oxygen was administered through facemask, non rebreathing mask and non invasive ventilation to patients as per requirement. Patients were encouraged to maintain prone position and target time was 10–12 hours/day. SpO2 and P/f ratio in supine and prone position was observed till discharge. Primary target was SpO2 > 95% and P/f > 200 mm Hg. Other COVID therapies were used according to institutional protocol. Results: The mean SpO2 on room air on admission was 80%. In day 1 to 3, the mean P/f ratio in supine position was 98.8 ± 29.7 mm Hg which improved to 136.6 ± 38.8 mm Hg after proning (p = 0.005). The difference was significant from day 1 to 10. Two patients were intubated. The mean duration of stay was 11 days. Conclusion: Awake prone positioning showed marked improvement in P/f ratio and SpO2 in COVID-19 patients with improvement in clinical symptoms with reduced rate of intubation. Highlights: • Prone position ventilation improves oxygenation by reducing VQ mismatch. • Awake prone positioning has been used along with high-flow oxygen therapy in recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus for management of mild to moderate cases.

Original Article

Sagar S Maddani, Hunasaghatta Chandrappa Deepa, Vedaghosh Amara

A Multicenter Questionnaire-Based Study to Know the Awareness and Medical Treatment Plan of Physicians Involved in the Management of COVID-19 Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:919 - 925]

Keywords: Remdesivir,Coronavirus disease 2019, Cytokine storm, Hydroxychloroquine, Medical management

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23567  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is on the raise in our country and there is there is no specific treatment modality available presently. The treatment of the disease largely remains symptomatic but repurposed drugs used to treat other disease conditions are being used to treat moderate to severe form of the disease. As the clinical trials for these drugs are ongoing, we conducted this survey to know the physicians’ medical treatment plan for COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: It was a Web-based questionnaire study. Institutional ethical committee clearance was taken before the commencement of the study. There were a total of 17 questions, the first 6 being about the demographics, place of work, and whether the clinician was involved in the care of COVID-19 patients. Subsequent 11 questions were to assess physician\'s awareness and plan of the medical management of the COVID-19 patients. Results: The majority of the clinicians were aware of the various treatment modalities available for the treatment of COVID-19. Regarding the plan for use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 55% of the total respondents intended to use the drug in combination with azithromycin, even as 62% agreed that there was no clear evidence yet. About 90% of all clinicians, from junior residents to consultants, were monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG) during HCQ therapy; however, there were 10% of physicians who were not practising ECG monitoring. About 68% of clinicians were aware of the various therapeutic options being tested, like convalescent plasma, lopinavir–ritonavir, and 64% knew about remdesivir. There was divergence regarding the use of steroids in a cytokine storm among the physicians, with only 39% of consultants planning to use steroids whereas about 50% of junior residents and 79% of junior consultants were planning to use the drug. Conclusion: The majority of the clinicians involved in the management of COVID-19 were aware of the various drug modalities available for treatment. However, more emphasis on the adverse effects and possible drug interactions is required. There is disaccord regarding the use of steroids in cytokine storm in COVID-19 and further guidelines and educational programs should address these issues. Clinical significance: Clinicians have to be made more aware of the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of the medications used for the treatment of COVID-19. The treatment of the serious, cytokine storm syndrome and the role of steroids must be elucidated as soon as it is feasible.

Original Article

Ashwin Subramaniam, Jumana Y Haji, Kollengode Ramanathan, Arvind Rajamani

Non-invasive Oxygen Strategies to Manage Confirmed COVID-19 Patients in Indian Intensive Care Units: A Survey

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:926 - 931]

Keywords: SARS-COV-2,Conservative oxygen therapy, COVID-19, High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, Hypoxemia, Indian intensive care unit, Low flow nasal oxygen, NIV: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23640  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: About 5% of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients will need intensive care unit (ICU) admission for hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring oxygen support. The choice between early mechanical ventilation and noninvasive oxygen therapies, such as, high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) and/or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) has to balance the contradictory priorities of protecting healthcare workers by minimizing aerosol-generation and optimizing resource management. This survey over two timeframes aimed to explore the controversial issue of location and noninvasive oxygen therapy in non-intubated ICU patients using a clinical vignette. Materials and methods: An online survey was designed, piloted, and distributed electronically to Indian intensivists/anesthetists, from Private Hospitals, Government Hospitals, and Medical College Hospitals (the latter two referred to as first-responder hospitals), who are directly responsible for admitting/managing patients in ICU. Results: Of the 204 responses (125/481 in phase 1 and 79/320 in phase 2), 183 responses were included. Respondents from first-responder hospitals were more willing to manage non-intubated hypoxemic patients in neutral pressure rooms, while respondents from private hospitals preferred negative-pressure rooms (p < 0.001). In both the phases, private hospital doctors were less comfortable to use any form of noninvasive oxygen therapies in neutral-pressure rooms compared to first-responder hospitals (low-flow oxygen therapy: 72 vs 50%, p < 0.01; HFNO: 47 vs 24%, p < 0.01 and NPPV: 38 vs 28%, p = 0.20). Interpretation: Variations existed in practices among first-responder and private intensivists/anesthetists. The resource optimal private hospital intensivists/anesthetists were less comfortable using noninvasive oxygen therapies in managing COVID-19 patients. This may reflect differential resource availability necessitating resolution at national, state, and local levels.

Original Article

Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Jagdish C Suri, Pranav Ish, Nitesh Gupta, Debasis Behera, Pankaj Gupta, Shibdas Chakrabarti

Neurocognitive and Quality-of-Life Outcomes Following Intensive Care Admission: A Prospective 6-Month Follow-Up Study

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:932 - 937]

Keywords: Neurocognitive impairment, Post intensive care, Quality of life

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23576  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Post-intensive care survivors have decreased quality of life scores and prolonged cognitive dysfunction due to baseline factors and events related to intensive care unit admission, which remain largely unrecognized. Materials and methods: A prospective observational cohort study to assess the quality of life and occurrence of cognitive dysfunction, 3 and 6 months following discharge from the intensive care unit, was carried out. We enrolled 136 adults presenting to the intensive care unit with no prior cognitive dysfunction or depression and followed up and assessed them with repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) and quality of life with short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey. Results: The incidence and prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was 100% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, as assessed by RBANS with a global cognition scores at 3 and 6 months of 71 (IQR 68.5–73) and 74 (IQR 72–86), respectively. Higher Charlson\'s comorbidity score, increased severity of illness, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, pain, delirium, coma, and hospital stay were associated with statistically significant lower scores at 3 months. The median SF-36 mental component score (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) at 3 months were 38.4 and 32.5 and at 6 months were 38.2 and 32.6, respectively. Poor score was associated significantly with advancing age, poor functional parameters at baseline as evidenced by clinical frailty, poor baseline Katz ADL scores, increased severity of illness, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, occurrence and duration of delirium, coma, pain, and usage of sedatives with or without analgesics. Conclusion and clinical significance: Patients discharged from the intensive care unit are at high risk for persistent cognitive impairment and poor quality of life score. Poor baseline patient characteristics and events occurring in ICU are associated with worse cognition and quality of life scores. There is an urgent need to prevent, diagnose, and manage these patients by optimizing intensive care practices.

Original Article

Sheikh Nurul Iqbal

Study of Antimicrobial Utilization and Cost of Therapy in Medicine Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:938 - 942]

Keywords: Antibiotics, Cost analysis, Drug utilization study, Multidrug resistant

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23552  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: High utilization of antimicrobial agent (AMA) and inappropriate usage in an intensive care unit (ICU) intensifies resistant organism, morbidity, mortality, and treatment cost. Prescription audit and active feedback are a proven method to check the irrational prescription. To analyze and compare the utilization of drugs, World Health Organization (WHO) proposed daily defined dose (DDD)/100 patient days and days of therapy (DOT)/100 patient days to measure utilization of AMAs. Data of AMAs utilization are required for planning an antibiotic policy and for follow-up of intervention strategies. Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for 1 year from July 2018 to June 2019 and the data obtained from ICU of a tertiary care hospital. The demographic data, the disease data, and the utilization of different classes of AMAs [WHO–Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification] as well as their cost were recorded. Total number of patient days, DDD, DDD/100 patient days, and DOT/100 patient days were calculated as proposed by WHO. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS version 25.0. The descriptive analysis was performed using summary statistics median [interquartile range (IQR)]. Results: A total 939 were included, out of them 332 (35.4%) were female. The median age of the total patients was 58 (45–70). The median length of stay in ICU was 3 days. Mortality rate during our study period was 38.6%. The highly utilized AMAs in our study was ceftriaxone (36.95 DDD/100 patient days) followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (31.57), meropenem (26.4), doxycycline (21.53), and polymyxin B (21.38). The association between APACHE II and SOFA score with use of restricted antibiotics found to be statistical significant (p value 0.018 and 0.000, respectively). The cost of antibiotics per patients and patient days were $449.97 and $93.77, respectively, while median value of total cost was $2,343.26. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone was the highest utilized AMA. The risk of receiving restricted antibiotics intensified with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance bacteria and associated comorbidities. High treatment cost is responsible for higher utilization of restricted antibiotics in ICU.

Original Article

Vettakkara KM Niyas, Rajalakshmi Arjun, Aswathy Sasidharan, George A Palakunnath

Streptococcus gallolyticus Bacteremia: Experience from a Tertiary Center in South India

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:3] [Pages No:943 - 945]

Keywords: Bacteremia, Endocarditis, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus gallolyticus

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23569  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Streptococcus gallolyticus is an important cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis in adults. Studies from other parts of the world has shown a strong association between S. gallolyticus bacteremia and colonic neoplasia. The profile of S. gallolyticus bacteremia is understudied in Indian population. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 16 patients with S. gallolyticus bacteremia obtained from microbiology registry. BacT/ALERT positive samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, and MacConkey agar. Organisms were identified by the VITEK 2 microbial identification system, and susceptibility was done by the microbroth dilution method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100 guidelines. Clinical details were obtained from electronic medical records. Results: Majority of our isolates were S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. Total 16 patients had S. gallolyticus isolated from blood over a 1 year period. The median age was 58 years (IQR: 46.5–66). Eleven were males; type II diabetes mellitus and chronic liver disease were the common comorbidities observed in our patients. None of our patients had underlying infective endocarditis or colonic malignancy. Penicillin sensitivity was 81.2% while all the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Ampicillin resistance was seen in only one of the isolates. In-hospital mortality was 12.5%. Conclusion: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is the commonest subspecies of S. gallolyticus isolated in our population. Unlike previous studies, colonic neoplasia and infective endocarditis were rare in our patients. Type II diabetes mellitus and chronic liver disease were the commonest risk factors identified in patients with S. gallolyticus bacteremia.

Original Article

Pattraporn Tajarernmuang, Peter Dodek, Daren K Heyland, Panida Chanayat, Juthamas Inchai, Chaicharn Pothirat, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Athavuth Deesomchok, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Atikun Limsukon

Validity and Reliability of a Thai Version of Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit Survey

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:9] [Pages No:946 - 954]

Keywords: Critical care, Family satisfaction, Intensive care unit, Quality care

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23559  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose: To examine reliability and validity of a Thai version of the Family Satisfaction with Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU 24) questionnaire and use this survey in intensive care units (ICUs) in Thailand. Materials and methods: The standard English FS-ICU questionnaire was translated into the Thai language using translation and culture adaptation guidelines. After reliability and validity testing, we consecutively surveyed the satisfaction of family members of ICU patients over 1 year. Adult family members of patients admitted to medical or surgical ICUs for 48 hours or more who had visited the patients at least once during the ICU stay were included. Results: In all, 315 (95%) of 332 surveys were returned from family members. Cronbach\'s α of the Thai FS-ICU 24 questionnaire was 0.95. Factor analysis demonstrated good construct validity. The mean (±SD) of total satisfaction score, overall ICU care subscale, and decision-making subscale were 81.5 ± 14.3, 81.0 ± 15.6, and 82.0 ± 14.0. Items with the lowest scores were the waiting room atmosphere and the frequency of doctors communicating with family members about the patient\'s condition. The mean total satisfaction score tended to be higher in family members of survivors than in family members of nonsurvivors (81.9 ± 13.8 vs 77.7 ± 16.2, p value = 0.059). The overall satisfaction scores between medial ICU vand surgical ICU were not significantly different. Conclusion: The Thai version of FS-ICU questionnaire was found to have acceptable reliability and validity in a Thai population and can be used to drive improvements in ICU care. Trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.in.th, TCR20160603002

Original Article

Fereshte Biyabanaki, Mansour Arab, Mahlagha Dehghan

Iranian Nurses Perception and Practices for Delirium Assessment in Intensive Care Units

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:955 - 959]

Keywords: Assessment, Barriers, Delirium, Intensive care unit, Nurses, Perception, Practices

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23502  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Delirium is a fluctuating cognitive disorder that occurs in admitted patients, especially in patients who are in intensive care units. Nurses due to persistent contact with patients and direct observation of their mental changes play an essential role in delirium evaluation. Early detection of delirium, identification of risk factors, and its prevention methods are critical to reducing complications, mortality, and treatment costs. This study aimed to determine the perception and the practices of nurses in intensive care units to assess delirium and its barriers. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and methods: All nurses working in the intensive care unit (neurology, trauma, surgery, general, and heart) of educational hospitals in Kerman, Iran, were the study population. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire consisting of four sections: demographic information, nurses’ perception, practices, and perceived barriers in delirium assessment. Results: The total score of nurses’ perception in delirium assessment was 19.47 ± 3.36, which was higher than the medium score of the questionnaire (estimated score = 16). In all, 45.5% of nurses reported having delirium treatment protocol in their units, and 12.1% of the nurses considered delirium as a priority of evaluating the patient\'s condition. The most important barrier to delirium assessment was the difficulty of assessing delirium in intubated patients. There was no association between nurses’ perception and practices (p value > 0.05). Conclusion: Designing and implementing educational programs for improving nurses’ practices in this field is necessary. Clinical significance: Healthcare providers, especially nurses, should be aware of the delirium assessment of the ICU patients to provide better care.

Pediatric Critical Care

Arun K Baranwal, Praveen Kumar-M, Pramod K Gupta

Comparison of Ventilator-Free Days at 14 and 28 days as a Clinical Trial Outcome in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:960 - 966]

Keywords: Clinical trials, Composite outcome measures, Intensive care, Low- and middle-income countries, Ventilator-free days,Children

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23568  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives: Reporting ventilator-free days (VFDs) with time frame of 28 days is a popular composite outcome measure (COM) in trials. However, early deaths and shorter pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay predominate in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A shorter time frame may reduce sample size required. We planned to compute sample size requirements for different effect sizes from datasets of previously conducted prospective studies for 28-day and 14-day time frames (VFD28 vs VFD14) to examine the hypothesis. Materials and methods: The VFD28 and VFD14 were defined. Datasets of five prospective studies from PICU of our hospital were analyzed to estimate sample sizes for target reductions of 1–9 days in VFDs and other COMs for the two time frames. Reconfirmation of results was done with datasets of two other studies from PICUs of two geographical extremes of the country. Results: Time-to-event occurred within 14 days in majority of patients. Sample size required for VFD14 is about one-fifth to one-sixth of what is required for VFD28 for target reductions of 1–9 days for all the enrolled studies. The same was true for other COMs as well. The hypothesis was supported by datasets of two other studies used for reconfirmation. Conclusion: Choice of time frame for assessing VFDs and other COMs in clinical trials should be guided by the clinical context. A shorter time frame may be rewarding in terms of smaller sample size in the prevalent clinical setting of LMICs. Further confirmation with more datasets and prospective studies is desirable.

Covid 19 Review

Mohana Nitsure, Bhakti Sarangi, Guruprasad H Shankar, Venkat S Reddy, Ajay Walimbe, Varsha Sharma

Mechanisms of Hypoxia in COVID-19 Patients: A Pathophysiologic Reflection

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:967 - 970]

Keywords: Intra-pulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses,Acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19, Hypoxemia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23547  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

COVID-19 causes severe hypoxemia which fulfills the criteria of ARDS but is not accompanied by typical features of the syndrome. The combination of factors including low P/F ratios, high A-a gradient, relatively preserved lung mechanics, and normal pulmonary pressures may imply a process occurring on the vascular side of the alveolar–capillary unit. The scant but rapidly evolving data available on the pathophysiology are seemingly conflicting, indicating the relative dominance of intrapulmonary shunting or dead space in different studies. In this hypothesis paper, we attempt to gather and explain these observations within a unified conceptual framework by invoking the relative contributions of microvascular thrombosis, along with two proposed vascular mechanisms of capillary flow redistribution and flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA).

Covid 19 Review

Arun Kumar, Munish Kapila, Ritu Pankaj

Medicine and Law in the Times of COVID-19 Pandemic: Understanding the Interphase

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:971 - 974]

Keywords: COVID-19, Legal issues, Medical profession

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23553  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

COVID-19 has heralded a wide set of challenges involving not only the medical management of the patients but also the legal dilemma with regards to provision of healthcare services. The medical professionals have experienced difficulty in balancing their obligations and duties toward the patients, and their own right to safeguard self, family, and their clinical establishments. The professional regulatory bodies and government have formulated new policies and amended laws to control the current situation. It is the need of the hour to be mindful of the existing laws and our rights and duties in the era of current pandemic. Collaborative efforts are needed to provide best possible care in the current unpredictable environment. The commonly encountered problems and their possible solutions are discussed in the context of medicolegal framework applicable to Indian medical practitioner.

Covid 19 Review

Kapil Zirpe, Atul Prabhakar Kulkarni, Harsh Sapra, Gaurav Kakkar, Rahul Gupta, Atma Ram Bansal, Arun Garg, Santosh Kumar Dash, Anil Gurnani, Azizullah Khan, Khalid Ismail Khatib, Pandurang Reddy Mare

Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Neurological Manifestations in COVID-19

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:975 - 980]

Keywords: Headache, Stroke,Anosmia, Central nervous system, Coronavirus disease 2019, Encephalopathy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23592  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

With increasing knowledge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we now understand that COVID-19 presents with various extrapulmonary manifestations with multiorgan involvement. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) occurs probably via transsynaptic spread or transfer across the blood–brain barrier. Hypoxia, immune-mediated injury, and vascular damage are the potential mechanisms for the CNS manifestations. Headache, dizziness, chemosensory disturbances, such as loss of smell, taste, encephalopathy, stroke, etc., are among the commonly encountered neurological presentations. Headache is identified as one of the red flag symptoms for COVID-19. Sudden onset of loss of smell and/or taste in the absence of nasal congestion can help in COVID-19 case identification and testing prioritization. Both hemorrhagic and ischemic brain injury is common in patients developing stroke. Besides these, COVID-19-associated CNS involvement demands more careful attention toward patients with existing neurological disorders especially that are managed with immunosuppressant agents. In all, neurological involvement in COVID-19 is not uncommon and may precede, occur concomitantly or after the respiratory involvement. It may also be the sole presentation in some of the patients necessitating high vigilance for COVID-19. In this review, we briefly discussed the pathogenesis of CNS involvement and some important neurological manifestations in COVID-19.

CLINICAL TECHNIQUE

Modified Negative Airflow Aerosol Prevention Box for COVID-19 Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:981 - 982]

Keywords: Aerosol-generating medical procedures, COVID-19 in India, Emergency medical services, Endotracheal intubation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23633  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The importance of this intubation box has come to light recently in view of the COVID-19 pandemic and the fact that intubation is an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). Risks of the healthcare worker attending to the airway of COVID-19 patients is high and the intubation box aims to minimize that and reduce contamination of the environment. To address this objective of decreasing transmission during AGP, we created a negative airflow aerosol box with a leak-proof airway handling system using readily available and affordable materials. The dimension of this box was 24 × 17.5 × 17.5 cm and it was made of high-quality 4 mm transparent acrylic sheet with two arm holes of 10 cm diameter. The caudal end of the negative airflow aerosol prevention box is wrapped with disposable plastic sheet and the both hand slots are sealed using camera cover and latex hand gloves and it decreases the risk of contamination.

CASE REPORT

Abhaykumar B Dheeraj, Sandeep K Giri, Bedanta Sarma

Doctrine of Novus Actus Interveniens Not Always a Defense: Analysis of a Case

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:3] [Pages No:983 - 985]

Keywords: Novus actus interveniens,Causal chain, Medical negligence

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23634  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Doctrine of novus actus interveniens (NAI) sometimes plays an important role as a tool of defense in medical negligence suits. It is a Latin phrase which means breakage of the causal chain at some point, relieving the initial wrongdoer. In medical negligence suits, the appearance of an external factor or event in the causal chain and the outcome is not directly related to the negligence of the doctor, but for the novel agent; the doctrine of NAI can be applied and the initial wrongdoer, i.e., the treating physician can be exempted. Autopsy of a similar type of case was performed in a tertiary care hospital in the State of Chhattisgarh. The autopsy findings identified a new factor in the form of dereliction in duty by another physician causing breakage of the chain in the current case described.

CASE REPORT

Supriya Sampley, Vinay Sakhuja, Deepak Bhasin, Kuldeep Singh, Harpal Singh

Plasmapheresis for Pulmonary Hemorrhage Following Viperine Snakebite: Case Report with Review of Literature

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:986 - 990]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Plasmapheresis, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Viper bite

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23635  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Snakebites are one of the commonest occupational hazards in tropical countries and viperine bites are potential to cause systemic toxicity. Coagulopathies and acute kidney injury (AKI) have been documented and easily dealt with in past, but pulmonary hemorrhage has been rarely seen and plasmapheresis has shown promising result for the same. This case reports highlight the effective use of plasmapheresis for pulmonary hemorrhage post-snakebite. Background: Viperine snakebite has been associated with high morbidity and mortality due to its toxic systemic envenomization. The important systemic manifestations are coagulopathy, neuromuscular paralysis, AKI, myotoxicity, and cardiovascular collapse. Antivenomization, renal replacement therapy, steroids, and other supportive care are considered to be the mainstay of treatment till date. Pulmonary hemorrhage has been an unusual manifestation of viper bite and rarely reported and steroids have been used in such scenario but with mixed results. Role of plasmapheresis has been documented in the management of snakebite but especially for hematological problems and in limb preservation/salvage strategies. The use of same, for pulmonary hemorrhage has not been studied yet. Here, we present a rare case of pulmonary hemorrhage along with renal failure following viper bite which was successfully treated with plasmapheresis. To the best of our knowledge, it is a rare presentation and has not been reported in the literature reviewed till date. Case description: A previously healthy, 36-year-old man presented to our hospital 48 hours after a viper bite. He developed local as well systemic manifestations evident as hemolysis and renal failure. Gradually, he started having hemoptysis followed by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. CT chest done was s/o bilateral pulmonary hemorrhages correlating clinically with ongoing tracheal bleed. He had no other bleeding manifestations and had normal coagulation profile. He was initially treated with methylprednisolone therapy, but then did not show any improvement and finally plasmapheresis was done as rescue therapy. Following this, he had improvement in respiratory parameters and settling tracheal bleed with resolution of radiological changes. He was successfully weaned off from the ventilation and also his renal failure also improved with near normalization of pulmonary and renal functions. Conclusion: This case highlights the unusual presentation of pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with viperine bite with normal coagulation and was aggressively managed with plasmapheresis. Hence, plasmapheresis can be used as life-saving modality in patients with systemic envenomization post-viperine bit.

CASE REPORT

Subhash Kumar, Binod K Pati, Chandramani Singh, Asim Sarfraz

Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis as a Probable Association of COVID-19

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:991 - 994]

Keywords: COVID case report, Coronavirus disease 2019 in India, Encephalopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging,Acute necrotizing encephalitis, Altered sensorium, Computed tomography

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23636  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Meanwhile, over 50 lakh people have now been affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the globe. There are various reports on neurological manifestations of COVID-19, which have attracted broad attention. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare complication of influenza and other viral infections and has been related to intracranial cytokine storm, which results in breach in blood–brain barrier leading to encephalitis like presentation. We report an unusual case of acute necrotizing encephalitis as a solitary presentation of COVID-19. Case description: We report a case of 35-year-old man from Bihar, presented to our emergency department in unconscious state, with high-grade fever and vomiting since last 5 days. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed a left parasellar-middle cranial fossa mass looks most likely like an invasive meningioma. Urgent non contrast computed tomography scan (NCCT) brain showed that mass as well as hypodensities in both thalami and left caudate nucleus. As per our institutional protocol, clinical management of raised intracranial pressure was initiated. As there is no current evidence from any randomized control trails (RCTs) to recommend any specific treatment for suspected or confirmed patients with COVID-19 with acute necrotizing encephalitis. Conclusion: Our case highlights the importance of identifying encephalitis as a presenting sign of COVID-19 based on NCCT findings with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and normal chest X-ray (CXR) findings.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Mahul Gorecha, Anitha Menon, Emily Woodford, Shuker Yahia, Kalimuthu Marimuthu

Early Serratus Plane Block for Rib Fracture Management Could Avoid Intensive Care Unit Admission

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:1] [Pages No:995 - 995]

Keywords: Intensive care unit, Regional anesthesia, Serratus plane block

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23631  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Kalaimaran Sadasivam, Bala Ramachandran

A Survey of Humidified High-flow Nasal Cannula Usage in Indian Pediatric Intensive Care Units

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:3] [Pages No:996 - 998]

Keywords: Pediatric intensive care, Respiratory support, Ventilation,Humidified high-flow nasal cannula

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23628  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Benhur J Shadrach, Deepak Tiwari, Shiv S Shahi, Rishabh Goel

Postpartum Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema: The Initial Presentation of an Underlying Rheumatic Heart Disease

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:999 - 1000]

Keywords: Doppler echocardiography, Postpartum, Pulmonary edema, Rheumatic heart disease

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23629  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Shagufta Naaz, Nishant Sahay, Rajnish Kumar, Adil Asghar

Prolonged Use of Supraglottic Airway Device for Mechanical Ventilation in the Intensive Care Unit

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1001 - 1002]

Keywords: Airway management, Difficult airway, Fibreoptic bronchoscopy, Hemodynamic indices, Mechanical ventilation, Supraglottic airway devices,Airway

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23630  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Josef Finsterer, Ana C Fiorini, Carla A Scorza, Fulvio A Scorza

Brain–Heart Interactions are More Diverse than Anticipated

[Year:2020] [Month:October] [Volume:24] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1003 - 1004]

Keywords: Brain–heart interactions, Cardiac, Central nervous system, Heart failure, Myocardium,Arrhythmias, Autonomic nervous system

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23632  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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