Postintensive care syndrome (PICS) is a frequent but underrecognized entity. It signifies a new or worsening impairment in cognitive, psychiatric, or physical disabilities arising during critical illness and persisting long afterward. The article discusses the data presented in an accompanying original article in a cohort of Indian patients. The multiple domains of disabilities affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for months to years. The editorial introduces the subject providing a brief overview of the current literature. Preventive and treatment strategies involving a multidisciplinary collaboration is necessary for good outcomes.
Importance: Rodenticide poisoning is a common occurrence in India. Of the different classes of rodenticides available, yellow phosphorus is considered highly toxic. There are scarce epidemiological data regarding the ingestion of yellow phosphorus in the subcontinent.
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the clinical profile of rodenticide-poisoned patients and delineate mortality predictors.
Design: Prospective observational study.
Setting and participants: Study was conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine, Government Villupuram Medical College and Hospital. All adult inpatients with a history of rodenticide poison exposure were eligible participants. A total of 99 patients completed the study protocol.
Main outcome: Survival with or without morbidity and death.
Results: In all, 90.91% of patients consumed the paste formulation of rodenticide [yellow phosphorus (67.2%) and yellow phosphorus + zinc phosphide (24%)].The time to resuscitation showed significance to mortality. Survival rate among patients instituted gastric decontamination within 2 hours of exposure (97.87%) was significantly higher than those who were not (84.62%) (p = 0.033). The clinical picture revealed conspicuous absence of signs and symptoms during the first 24 hours. In all, 72.73% (n = 72) manifested with toxidrome after a lag period of 24–36 hours (range 18–72 hours). The dominant clinical manifestations included abdominal pain (52.53%), jaundice (22.21%), coagulopathy (15.15%), encephalopathy (10.10%), shock (10.10%), acute kidney injury (AKI; 7.08%), and multi-organ failure (17.17%). Laboratory data showed elevated aspartate transaminase (AST; 48.47%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 49.50%), bilirubin levels (22.21%), metabolic acidosis (10.12%), serum creatinine (7.08%), prothrombin time prolongation (PT/INR; 15.15%), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (3.30%). The mortality was 9.1% (n = 9) of which 77.78% (n = 7) died of fulminant hepatic failure. The mean time for death was 4.22 days since exposure (range 2–8 days).
Conclusion: Rodenticide poisoning in Southern India is dominated by yellow phosphorus. In this study, we identified delayed resuscitation, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, elevation of AST and ALT to >1000 IU/L, metabolic acidosis, and refractory shock as reliable predictors of bad outcome in this patient population. The common mode of death was fulminant hepatic failure.
Relevance: Rodenticide poisoning ranks second in mortality hierarchy at our institute, and systematic analysis of this patient population is an urgent need.
Objective: To assess the quality of life (QoL) following intensive care unit (ICU) discharge using 6 months’ prospective follow-up and to analyze the risk factors affecting quality-of-life post-discharge.
Design: A prospective observational cohort study. Conducted on adult patients, discharged from ICU after more than 7 days’ stay. Study duration is from January 2017 to October 2018. Patients <18 years, nonconsenting, preexisting neurological illness, and lost to follow-up were excluded. Follow-up was done at 1 and 6 months using the SF-36 questionnaire. The pre-ICU functional status, patient demographics, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score, New York Health Evaluation (NYHA) classification, and details of ICU stay were collected.
Results: One hundred patients (M = 60, F = 40) with ICU stay (13.64 ± 3.75 days), days of mechanical ventilation (7.93 ± 3.89 days), admission APACHE II (18.88 ± 4.34) and SOFA (7.73 ± 1.54) scores. Comparison showed physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) score at pre-ICU were 55.12 and 55.09 which decreased to 39.59 and 35.49 (p < 0.05) at 1 month post-discharge and 47.93 and 37.46 at 6 months. Age, APACHE II, and SOFA scores are the significant factors affecting PCS and MCS. Length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation did not affect significantly at 6 months. When compared with general population PCS and MCS showed significant deterioration at 1 and 6 months.
Conclusion: Post-ICU discharge patients have significant functional impairment and compromised health-related QoL (HRQoL). Age and severity of illness significantly affects health quality parameters and decline is below the normal data of general population.
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Bhume RJ, Babaliche P. Clinical Profile and the Role of Rapid Serological Tests: Typhifast IgM and Enterocheck WB in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):307-312.
Introduction: During identification and diagnosis, typhoid fever (TF) causes various issues such as nonspecific symptoms and nontyphoidal Salmonella-associated febrile diseases. Accurate identification and diagnosis are still a substantial concern. The current study was undertaken to study the clinical profile of TF and the role of Typhifast IgM and Enterocheck WB in early diagnosis.
Materials and methods: Clinically suspected TF patients (121) were included in the study. Patients with antibiotic history during the period of febrile illness were excluded. The diagnosis was confirmed with blood culture test. Widal test and two new rapid serological tests: Typhifast IgM and Enterocheck WB were performed. The outcomes were compared with blood culture-confirmed cases to derive the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The clinical characteristics were compared with diagnostic tests using Chi-square test.
Results: The most common presentations of TF were fever, chills, vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, and diarrhea. Among the 121 clinically suspected TF patients, 67 had positive blood culture tests for Salmonella typhi. The Typhifast IgM and Enterocheck WB showed sensitivity of 97.01% and 68.52%, respectively. Specificity was also more with Typhifast IgM (85.07%) than with Enterocheck WB (62.96%). When tests were used in parallel combination, 97.01% sensitivity was attained, while the specificity dropped to 46.30%. When used in serial combination, sensitivity of 85.07% and specificity of 85.19% were observed.
Conclusion: Stepladder fever, abnormal serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and abnormal albumin are associated with blood culture, Typhifast IgM, and Enterocheck WB tests. Rapid serological tests might assist in accurate and early identification of TF.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Rameshbabu H Javali,
Ganesha B Siddappa,
Adarsh S Bheemanna,
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Javali RH, Loganathan A, Srinivasarangan M, Patil A, Siddappa GB, Satyanarayana N, Bheemanna AS, Jagadeesh S, Betkerur S. Reliability of Emergency Department Diagnosis in Identifying the Etiology of Nontraumatic Undifferentiated Hypotension. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):313-320.
Introduction: Nontraumatic undifferentiated hypotension is one of the common and challenging critical presentations in the emergency department (ED) due to the difficulty in diagnosing the etiology of shock. In the present study, an attempt was made to test point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as an early approach to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and to narrow the differentials in cases of nontraumatic undifferentiated hypotension.
Materials and methods: This is a prospective explorative study conducted in the ED of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 18 months. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. All patients >18 years of age with systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg with at least one sign or symptom of hypoperfusion were included in the study. Patients referred from another hospital as shock, history of trauma, and history suggestive of orthostatic hypotension and presented with symptomatic postural hypotension as the only chief complaint were excluded. All the patients who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria underwent detailed clinical and multi-organ PoCUS evaluation by two different observers. Assessment of the lungs, cardia, abdomen, aorta, inferior vena cava (IVC), and leg veins during the PoCUS examination was done. A third observer combined the clinical evaluation and the PoCUS findings. All patients were followed through for their final diagnosis at the time of discharge. First, the diagnosis after clinical evaluation alone was compared to the final diagnosis. Then the diagnoses based on the findings of PoCUS alone were compared with the final diagnosis. Last, the diagnosis obtained on combining the data of clinical evaluation with that of PoCUS was compared to the final diagnosis. The data were analyzed based on their reliability indices, accuracy, and the Cohen\'s kappa coefficient.
Results: Diagnoses based on clinical evaluation alone and POCUS alone were found to be accurate in 45% and 47% of patients, respectively. But on combining the findings of clinical evaluation with PoCUS, the accuracy increased to 89%. The most common etiology of shock was found to be distributive shock present in 38% of patients with sepsis being the most common subtype. In patients with obstructive shock, combined clinical evaluation with PoCUS was in perfect agreement with Cohen\'s kappa coefficient (κ) = 1 and those with distributive shock were in substantial agreement with Cohen\'s kappa coefficient (κ) = 0717. The overall kappa correlation of the combined evaluation with PoCUS was 0.89, which shows an almost perfect agreement with the final diagnosis.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the accuracy and reliability of PoCUS as an easy and valuable bedside tool when added to the clinical evaluation. It helps in narrowing the differentials and thereby guiding early goal-directed therapy in nontraumatic, undifferentiated hypotension patients presenting to the ED.
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Patel H, Parikh N, Shah R, Patel R, Thosani R, Shah P, Prajapat L. Effect of Goal-directed Hemodynamic Therapy in Postcardiac Surgery Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):321-326.
Background and aims: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) provides preset goals to be achieved by intravenous fluid therapy and inotropic therapy with earliest detection of change in the hemodynamic profile. Improved outcome in cardiac surgery patients has been shown by perioperative volume optimization, while postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay can be decreased by improving oxygen delivery. Our aim of this study was to study the outcome of EGDT in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.
Materials and methods: This is a prospective single institute study involving a total of 478 patients. Patients were divided into group I, who received standard hospital care, and group II, who received EGDT. Postoperatively, patients were observed in ICU for 72 hours. Hemodynamics, laboratory data, fluid bolus, inotrope score, complication, ventilatory time, and mortality data were collected.
Results: Postoperative ventilatory period (11.12 ± 10.11 vs 9.45 ± 8.87, p = 0.0719) and frequency of change in inotropes (1.900 ± 0.9 vs 1.19 ± 0.61, p = 0.0717) were lower in group II. Frequency of crystalloid boluses (1.33 ± 0.65 vs 1.75 ± 1.09, p = 0.0126), and quantity of packed cell volume (PCV) used (1.63 ± 1.03 vs 2.04 ± 1.42, p = 0.0364) were highly significant in group II. Use of colloids was higher in group II and was statistically significant (1.98 ± 1.99 vs 3.05 ± 2.17, p = 0.0012). The acute kidney injury (AKI) rate was (58 (23.10%) vs 30 (13.21%), p = 0.007) lower and statistically significant (p = 0.007) in group II.
Conclusion: Early goal-directed therapy reduces the postoperative ventilatory period, frequency of changes in inotropes, and incidence of AKI, and decreases ventilation hours, number of times inotropes changed, and AKI.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Işıl Köse Güldoğan,
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Zincircioglu C, Yavuz T, Sarıtaş A, Çakmak M, Güldoğan IK, Uzun U, Şenoğlu N. Is Procalcitonin a Marker of Neurologic Outcome or Early Infection in Patients Treated with Targeted Temperature Management?. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):327-331.
Objectives: Although high procalcitonin (PCT) levels are associated with poor neurological outcomes and increased mortality rates in patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) in the postcardiac arrest (CA) period, there are limited data about the correlation between PCT levels and infection. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship of PCT levels in the first 48 hours with early period infections, late period neurological prognosis, and mortality in patients treated with TTM after CA.
Materials and methods: Serum PCT was measured on admission days 1 and 2. The early onset infection diagnosis before the seventh day in the intensive care unit (ICU) was made according to the criteria of infection centers for disease control and prevention. Mortality and neurologic outcomes were assessed 90 days after CA according to cerebral performance category (CPC) score.
Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between early period infection diagnosis and PCT levels at the time of admission, 24th, and 48th hours. Patients with poor neurologic outcomes on the 90th day had significantly high PCT levels at 24 (p = 0.044) and 48 hours (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant correlation between admission PCT levels and neurological prognosis. While the correlation between mortality and PCT levels at 24 (p = 0.049) and 48 (p = 0.004) hours was significantly high, no statistically significant correlation was found between admission PCT levels and mortality.
Conclusion: In patients treated with TTM after CA, increased PCT levels were significantly correlated with poor neurologic outcomes and mortality. However, the elevated PCT levels were not significantly correlated with early period infections.
Knowledge about basic life support (BLS) is mandatory for healthcare professionals. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge among medical students who have completed their MBBS course and have enrolled for internship.
Materials and methods: A questionnaire pertaining to BLS before and after the BLS workshop (pretest and posttest 1) was distributed among the 50 participants consented for the study. The questionnaire was again given to the same participants at the end of their 1 year of internship (posttest 2) and were analyzed.
Results: Among the participants, 96% of students had attended nonstructured BLS classes in the past but the knowledge and skill in BLS and ability to recognize arrest were very low. Knowledge about the essential components of effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was poor among students, which improved to near 100% in posttest 1. Awareness about cervical spine stabilization, log rolling, and management of choking was poor among the students, which improved after the class. Although attrition had occurred, the knowledge in posttest 2 was significantly better than pretest (p value < 0.05).
Conclusion: The BLS knowledge among young doctors in India is very low as evidenced by poor performance in the pretest. Regular BLS courses are necessary to improve the knowledge among them and to prepare them to respond to a medical emergency.
Clinical significance: Knowledge and skills pertaining to BLS are not usually taught in medical schools in India. This study indicates the lack of knowledge among medical students about BLS and the need for improvement and regular update. This study can serve as a guide for policymakers to consider inculcating BLS knowledge into the medical school curriculum in the near future.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Mahesh R Khairnar,
Tanushri M Dalvi,
Uma V Datar,
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Khairnar MR, Anitha G, Dalvi TM, Kalghatgi S, Datar UV, Wadgave U, Shah S, Preet L. Comparative Efficacy of Hand Disinfection Potential of Hand Sanitizer and Liquid Soap among Dental Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):336-339.
Background: Hands are the most common medium for initiation and spread of infection in clinics. Hand hygiene is the simplest and most economic method for reducing the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs).
Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of hand sanitizer, liquid soap, and their combination for reducing the microbial colonies on hands.
Materials and methods: The study was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial executed in a dental college on 90 participants, which were randomly assigned into three intervention groups of 30 each. The participants were instructed to contaminate their hands followed by a hand hygiene protocol for the liquid hand-wash group, the alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) group, and the combination group according to WHO guidelines. The swabs were collected pre- and post-intervention and mean colony-forming units were determined for each group.
Results: Median percentage reduction was highest for the combination group (100%), followed by the ABHS group (94.29%) and lowest for the liquid soap (92.31%). This difference in the amount of colony-forming units (CFU) among all the groups was nonsignificant (p = 0.114).
Conclusion: The results of the study show that there was no significant difference in hand disinfection potential among hand sanitizer, liquid soap, or their combination. All the three interventions were equally effective with the reduction of total bacterial contamination from participants’ hands.
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Chhawchharia R, Joshi R, Agarwal N. Flexible Fiber-optic Bronchoscopy-directed Interventions in Children with Congenital Heart Diseases. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):340-343.
Objective: In children, pulmonary and cardiac diseases are closely associated, and their integrated evaluation is important. Flexible fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FFB) can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in pediatric cardiac intensive care units (PCICU). The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of FFB in children with congenital heart disease (CHD).
Materials and methods: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at a tertiary care center in pediatric patients who underwent FFB in PCICU over a period of 6 years (2012–2017).
Results: Total 71 bronchoscopies were done in 58 patients with CHD with median age and weight of 2.5 months and 3.4 kg, respectively. Total of 20 different cardiac lesions were present among patients who underwent FFB. While 38 (53.5%) and 30 (42.3%) procedures were performed in pre-op and postoperative patients, respectively, 3 intraoperative bronchoscopies were also performed. The main indications for FFB were persistent atelectasis (42/71), prolonged oxygen requirement (13/71), stridor (8/71), and suspected airway anomaly (6/71). Tracheobronchitis was the commonest bronchoscopy finding (51/71, 71.8%) followed by tracheobronchomalacia (27/71, 38.3%). Cause of stridor detected in 7/8 cases. Associated preoperative and postoperative respiratory complications were detected and necessary interventions were done. These included slide tracheoplasty (5/58), tracheostomy (5/58), antibiotic change based on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures (11/71), and continued positive pressure ventilation (4/71). Nonconsequential complications were transient hypoxemia (10/71), bleeding (2/71), and transient bradycardia (1/71).
Conclusion: Bedside FFB is a safe and a valuable diagnostic tool that also helps in guiding interventions in children with cardiac diseases.
Aim: To assess the accuracy of the passive leg raising (PLR) test to anticipate fluid responsiveness in critically ill children under age of 5 years.
Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted, in a university hospital pediatric intensive care unit from June 1, 2017, to January 30, 2018. Hemodynamic parameters including stroke volume using bedside transthoracic echocardiography were assessed at baseline I (45° semi-recumbent position), after PLR, at baseline II, and following fluid challenge. Changes in the stroke volume (delta SV) and in the cardiac index (CI) were recorded after PLR and fluid challenge.
Findings: Delta SV of 10% after PLR was an excellent discriminator of the fluid responsiveness with an area under ROC (AUC) of 0.81 (95% CI 0.68–0.9) with a sensitivity of 65.38% and a specificity of 100%. The change in CI of 8.7% after PLR was a significant discriminator of fluid responsiveness with an AUC of 0.7 (95% CI 0.56–0.81) with 57.78% sensitivity and 91.67% specificity.
Conclusion: Passive leg raising can identify nonresponders among seriously ill children under the age of 5 years but it cannot identify all responders with certainty.
Clinical significance: Passive leg raising is reliable test in under 5 year-old-children if performed appropriately using bedside echocardiography for the measurement of its transient effect.
Pituitary insufficiency is an uncommon disorder. The most common cause is compression due to a pituitary mass. Other causes include inflammatory damage and vascular injury like postpartum pituitary apoplexy. Postpartum pituitary apoplexy, also known as Sheehan\'s syndrome, leads to hormonal deficiencies and causes postpartum amenorrhea, lactational failure, chronic hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and loss of secondary sexual characters. Here we are discussing the clinical course of 15 female patients of panhypopituitarism. Most of them had a history of postpartum hemorrhage. Knowledge about this entity is essential as it is a treatable condition and ignorance could prove to be fatal.
Every patient in neurocritical care evolves through two phases. Acute pathologies are addressed first. These include trauma, hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, or neuroinfection. Soon after, the concentration shifts to identifying secondary pathologies like fever, seizures, and ischemia, which may exacerbate the brain injury. Frequent bedside examinations are not sufficient for timely detection and prevention of secondary brain injury (SBI) as per the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care. Multimodality monitoring (MMM) can help in tailoring treatment decisions to prevent such a brain injury. Multimodal neuromonitoring involves data-guided therapeutic interventions by employing various tools and data integration to understand brain physiology. Monitors provide real-time information on cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, metabolism, and electrophysiology. The monitors may be invasive/noninvasive and global/regional. We have reviewed such technologies in this write-up. Novel themes like bioinformatics, clinical research, and device development will also be discussed.
Parvovirus B19 has rarely been associated with acute liver failure (ALF), which has a high mortality. Plasma exchange that usually acts as a bridge to liver transplantation removes toxins, antibodies, cytokines, and can correct coagulopathy while maintaining a euvolemic state. Pediatric data regarding its use are scarce. We report a case of 16-year-old girl with acute liver failure in stage 4 encephalopathy with coagulopathy due to parvovirus B19 who was successfully managed with high-volume therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). We tried to use it as a treatment modality due to nonavailability of in-hospital transplant facilities. Parvovirus B19 may be an underdiagnosed cause of acute viral hepatitis. Therapeutic plasma exchange can act as a bridge to liver transplant (LT) or bridge to recovery especially in self-limiting illnesses such as viral hepatitis.
Laxmi Narayan Tripathy,
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Tripathy LN, Rana I, Saha A, Dixit R. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Secondary to Ruptured Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):363-364.
A 41-year-old lady who presented with sudden-onset severe headache diagnosed to have ruptured supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. Her cardiac echocardiography showed features of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. After stabilizing her cardiac condition, she underwent craniotomy and clipping of aneurysm. Both cardiac and neurological catastrophes were managed by the joint team with excellent outcome. This paper emphasizes the need for high-quality combined care.
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Sutar A, Venkategowda P, Murthy A, Chikkaswamy SB. Severe Amlodipine Toxicity: A Case Rescued with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):365-366.
Amlodipine is a widely prescribed drugs for the management of hypertension. Its toxicity is associated with severe myocardial depression and refractory hypotension. We present a case of a 28-year-old female known case of seizure disorder and depression who got admitted to our hospital with a history of consumption of 80 tablets of 5 mg amlodipine (total 400 mg). Patient presented to our hospital after 23 hours following consumption of the drug. Patient was managed in the intensive care unit (ICU) with mechanical ventilation support and intravenous infusion of noradrenalin, adrenalin, insulin-dextrose, and calcium gluconate. Due to refractory hypotension, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) was initiated on the same day. Patient was successfully managed and discharged home on the 8th day. This report highlights a rare case of a massive amlodipine overdose (400 mg) and ECMO as a rescue therapy.
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Vashisht R, Mirzai S, Koval C, Duggal A. Adenovirus-associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Need for a Protocol-based Approach. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):367-368.
Aim: Viral causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are mostly limited to influenza A; however, adenovirus has been emerging as a cause of fulminant ARDS with a high mortality rate and no consensus on its management. Here we present a series of five patients with confirmed adenovirus infection treated for ARDS at our quaternary referral institution.
Materials and methods: All patients were above 18 years old, had confirmed adenovirus infection, and were treated for acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in our medical intensive care unit (MICU). Demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed.
Results: Among these patients, the median age was 28 years, median BMI 28 kg/m2, median sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score 9, and median acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score 74. All patients received lung-protective mechanical ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure and low plateau pressures. Three patients developed severe ARDS, two received prone position ventilation, and one was placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation, MICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay were 24, 19, and 27 days, respectively. One out of five patients died in our study.
Conclusion: The mortality rate for adenovirus-associated pneumonia in the literature is estimated to be 40% in those requiring mechanical ventilation. The lower mortality at our institution could be attributed to the use of standardized protocols, which include low tidal volume ventilation, early use of neuromuscular blockade, targeting low plateau pressures, conservative fluid management, and comfort and familiarity with the use of adjunctive and rescue therapies. We recommend testing for adenovirus as part of a routine respiratory viral panel in ARDS patients, and if tested positive, transfer to tertiary or quaternary centers with the experience and rescue modalities needed to manage complicated ARDS patients.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Pooja R Murthy,
KV Venkatesha Gupta,
AK Ajith Kumar
Countries all over the world writhing under the wrath of coronavirus face not only the challenge of protecting their population but the tougher challenge of protecting their healthcare workers (HCWs) dealing with the patient population. This pandemic has put unprecedented pressure on global healthcare systems, with personal protective equipment (PPE) being the most notable one. Apart from the challenge of procurement of PPE, the major challenge is rationalizing the use of PPE in this war against corona virus disease 19 (COVID19). Using PPE comes with its own set of problems such as extreme exhaustion, rashes, inability to consume food, or use washroom which can result in clouding of judgment and breach of infection barrier. Making PPE user-friendly and limiting the interaction of HCW with COVID19 patients coupled with the use of robotics, telemedicine, and other innovations is the need of the hour.