Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2020 | June | Volume 24 | Issue 6

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Simulation Benefits Both the Teacher and the Taught

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:373 - 374]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23472  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



End-of-life Care in the Intensive Care Unit: Better Late Than Never?

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:3] [Pages No:375 - 377]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23496  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Khusrav Bajan

Rapid Emergency Medicine Score—Reinventing Prognostication in Emergency Care

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:378 - 379]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23467  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Pediatric Scrub Typhus: A Commentary

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:1] [Pages No:380 - 380]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23468  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The commentary is to highlight not the profile of scrub typhus but the correlation of serology with immunofluorescence.



Withdraw Sedation Gently or Face Withdrawal Syndrome!

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:381 - 382]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23466  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Udit Chaddha, Viren Kaul, Abhinav Agrawal

What is the True Mortality in the Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19?

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:383 - 384]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23435  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Sameer Jog, Dhananjay Kelkar, Madhav Bhat, Vishnudas S Telbhare, Gouri Ranade, Vaibhavi Upadhye, Parikshit S Prayag, Sukrut Purandare, Rajesh Bhavsar

Preparedness of Acute Care Facility and a Hospital for COVID-19 Pandemic: What We Did!

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:8] [Pages No:385 - 392]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23416  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and aim: India is facing the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) just like the whole world. The private sector is the backbone of a healthcare facility in India. Presently, only a few major hospitals in the country are actively dealing with the COVID-19 patients while others are facing troubles due to lack of manpower, management, and required experience to face the pandemic. Despite the lockdown, the cases are ever increasing and each and every hospital in the country should be prepared to face this pandemic the world has never seen before. As one of the largest multispecialty hospitals and a designated COVID center, we have developed and adopted some strategies for better preparedness to face the surge of this pandemic. We would like to share our experience and hope that the strategies laid down and adopted by us will help many other acute care facilities in many parts of India. Materials and methods: Different strategies are adopted to deal with the crisis situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our adopted strategies were directed to mitigate the challenges of administration, hospital space organization, management of staff and supplies, maintenance of standard of care, and specific COVID care and ethics during this pandemic. Results: Based on strategies adopted by us, we feel more confident and prepared to deal with COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Our approach for preparing for the COVID-19 pandemic may not be the best one but we believe that the basic managerial principles we adopted will guide many other institutions to find their path in tackling the pandemic in the best possible way.



Bharath Kumar Tirupakuzhi Vijayaraghavan

Breaking Barriers to Reach Farther: A Call for Urgent Action on Tele-ICU Services

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:393 - 397]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23447  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Monali Khergade

Obstetric Early Warning Score for Prognostication of Critically Ill Obstetric Patient

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:398 - 403]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23453  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Obstetric early warning score (OEWS) has been used conventionally for early identification of deteriorating obstetric patients in the labor room and ward settings. This study was conducted to determine if this simple clinical score could be used for prognosticating a critically ill patient in the ICU setting instead of sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score. Materials and Methods: A cohort study was conducted at Obstetrics Critical Care Unit, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. A total of 250 obstetric patients were recruited after informed consent. The OEWS, SOFA, and APACHE II scores were calculated within 24 hours of admission. The patients were followed to study the maternal outcome. Results: The area under receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve of OEWS, SOFA, and APACHE II for prediction of maternal mortality was 0.894 (95% CI, 0.849–0.929), 0.924 (95% CI, 0.884–0.954), and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.891–0.958), respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for OEWS, SOFA, and APACHE II was 66.3, 62.5, and 69.15%, respectively. Conclusion: Obstetric early warning score is as effective as the conventional SOFA and APACHE II to prognosticate the obstetric patient. Since OEWS is based only on clinical criteria, it can be done immediately on admission and can help in early allocation of appropriate manpower and resources for optimum outcome. Clinical significance: The clinical application of this study will help intensivists to prognosticate the critically ill obstetric patients immediately following admission to the critical care unit.


Original Article

Ankit Sharma

Effects of Delayed Initiation of End-of-life Care in Terminally Ill Intensive Care Unit Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:404 - 408]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23454  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Early initiation of end-of-life (EOL) care in terminally ill patients can reduce the administration of unnecessary medications, minimize laboratory and radiological investigations, and avoid procedures that can provoke untoward complications without substantial benefits. This retrospective observational study was performed to compare early vs late initiation of EOL care in terminally ill ICU patients after the recognition of treatment futility. Materials and methods: The medical records of all patients who were considered to be terminally ill any time after ICU admission between January 2014 and December 2018 were extracted from the ICU database. The patients who were recognized for treatment futility were eligible for inclusion. The patients who were already on EOL care prior to the ICU admission or whose diagnosis was unconfirmed were excluded from the study. The treatment futility was a subjective decision jointly undertaken by the primary physician and the intensivist based upon the disease stage and the available therapeutic options. The commencement of EOL care after recognition of treatment futility was divided into (a) early group (EG)—within 48 hours of decision of treatment futility and (b) late group (LG)—after 48 hours of recognition of treatment futility. Both the groups were compared for (a) ICU mortality, (b) length of ICU stay, (c) number of antibiotic-free days, (d) number of ventilator-free days, (e) number of medical and/or surgical interventions (insertion of central lines, drains, IABP, etc.), (f) number of blood and radiological investigations, and (g) satisfaction level of family members. Results: Out of 107 terminally ill patients with diagnosis of treatment futility, 64 patients (59.8%) underwent early initiation of EOL against delayed initiation in 43 (40.2%) patients (1.3 ± 0.4 days vs 5.1 ± 1.6 days; p = 0.01). The patients in the late initiation group were younger in age (49 ± 3.6 years vs 66 ± 5.3 years; p = 0.03). The number of antibiotic-free days was higher in the early initiation group (12 ± 5.2 days vs 6 ± 7.5; p = 0.02). The number of medical and surgical interventions was lesser in the early initiation group (3.0 ± 0.7 episodes vs 12 ± 3.9 episodes; p = 0.007). The late initiation of EOL was caused by prognostic dilemma (30.2%), reluctance of the family members (44.1%), ambivalence of the primary physician (18.6%), and hesitancy of the intensivist (6.9%). The satisfaction level of the family members was similar in both the groups. Conclusion: We conclude that delayed initiation of EOL care in terminally ill ICU patients after recognition of treatment futility can increase the antibiotic usage and medical and/or surgical interventions with no effect on the satisfaction level of the family members.


Original Article

Varun R Nayak, Handattu Mahabaleswara Krishna

Influence of Physical Activity of the Rescuer on Chest Compression Duration and its Effects on Hemodynamics and Fatigue Levels of the Rescuer: A Simulation-based Study

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:409 - 413]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23457  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving skill performed during the cardiac arrest. Various factors of rescuer affect CPR quality, and rescuers physical fitness is one among the important factors needs to be explored for improved CPR quality. This study aimed to assess the physical activity (PA) levels of the health care providers (HCPs) who were trained in basic life support (BLS) and its relationship on chest compression duration, hemodynamic parameters, and fatigue levels of the rescuers. Materials and methods: A single-center, cross-sectional study was conducted on 48 HCPs who were trained in BLS within one year. Eligible participants were contacted by email, and the responders’ level of PA was determined using the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). The participants were recruited for chest compression-only cardiac arrest scenarios. Each subject performed continuous chest compression on the manikin until they perceived maximum fatigue. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and fatigue level were assessed at baseline, immediately after and following two minutes of cessation of chest compressions. The total duration of chest compression was also documented. Results: Most participants (24, 50%) reported high levels of PA while 22 (45.83%) and 2 (4.17%) reported moderate and low intensity of PA, respectively. The mean age of the 35 participants was 26.08 ± 4.60 years. The mean duration of chest compressions was 193.25 seconds with higher times reported for those with high PA when compared to those with moderate PA (p = 0.017). Similar findings were also observed for fatigue. Conclusion: Rescuers who reported high PA had lower levels of fatigue and could perform longer duration of chest compressions.


Original Article

Sarita Mohapatra, Arti Kapil, Ashish Suri, Mihir P Pandia, Rohit Bhatia, Sachin Borkar, Surya Kumar Dube, Amandeep Jagdevan, Shally George, Bindu Varghese, Jyotsna Dabral

Impact of Continuous Education and Training in Reduction of Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection in Neurointensive Care Unit

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:414 - 417]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23455  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Patients in the neurointensive care unit have high utilization of devices, thereby increased chance of getting device-associated infection (DAI). Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) remains one of the most important DAI. Education remains an important part of the hospital infection control and improves the infection-control practices. Materials and methods: To evaluate the effectiveness of a quality initiative in reducing incidence of CLABSI, a prospective study (January 2017–December 2018) was done estimating CLABSI incidence before and after the intervention. Continuous teaching and training for hand hygiene practice and central-line catheter hub care were used as the tool for this study. Results: The quality improvement (QI) initiative achieved a 48% reduction in the CLABSI rate from the baseline rate of 8.7 to 4.5 per 1000 catheter days. The overall mortality showed a reduction from 1.5 to 0.05% during the post-intervention period. There was a significant improvement in compliance with the hand hygiene practice and catheter hub care in the post-intervention period. Discussion and conclusion: This study demonstrates adherence to hand hygiene and catheter hub care with continuous teaching, training, and supervision was highly effective in reducing the CLABSI rate. Clinical significance: Central line-associated bloodstream infection is one of the most important DAI causing significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill patient. Our findings support that continuous educational intervention of hand hygiene with and training on the catheter hub care are two most important preventive measures in the reduction of CLABSI incidence.


Original Article

Alireza Ala, Samad Shams Vahdati, Mahsa Jalali, Sina Parsay

Rapid Emergency Medicine Score as a Predictive Value for 30-day Outcome of Nonsurgical Patients Referred to the Emergency Department

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:418 - 422]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23456  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and aims: Multiple scoring systems are designed and prepared nowadays that can be used to determine and predict the severity, morbidity, and mortality rate of patients. Among them, the rapid emergency medicine score (REMS) system has been designed to predict the motility of nonsurgical patients admitted to the emergency department (ED). This study was performed with the aim of evaluating the predictive value of REMS in the mortality rate of nonsurgical patients. Materials and methods: This study was carried out in 2017 among 300 nonsurgical patients referred to the ED. Data were collected using a checklist containing two parts of demographic information and REMS scale. Results: Based on the results, we found a significant correlation between the duration of hospitalization and other parameters of the study. The results of this study indicated that the REMS of patients increased by 11%, 3%, and 5%, per each unit rise in patient's age, heart rate, and respiratory rate, respectively. On the contrary, 12% and 22% decrements for every unit increase in SPO2 and GCS levels were observed, respectively. All the reported findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: In sum, the outcomes of the present study corroborate the REMS system as a successful scale in predicting mortality and the duration of hospitalization in nonsurgical ED patients.


Original Article

Saravana K Paramasivam

Simulation Training in Hemodynamic Monitoring and Mechanical Ventilation: An Assessment of Physician's Performance

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:423 - 428]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23458  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Simulation is to imitate or replicate real-life scenarios in order to improve cognitive, diagnostic and therapeutic skills. An ideal model should be good enough to output realistic clinical scenarios and respond to interventions done by trainees in real time. Use of simulation-based training has been tried in various fields of medicine. The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of simulation model “CRITICA”™ (MEDUPLAY systems) in training critical care physicians. Materials and methods: The advanced intensive care unit (ICU) simulator “CRITICA”™ (MEDUPLAY systems) was developed as a joint collaboration between the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru and St John's Medical College, Bengaluru. Two-day workshop was conducted. Intensive didactic and case-based scenarios were simulated to formally teach principles of advanced ICU scenarios. The physicians were tested on clinical scenarios in hemodynamic monitoring and mechanical ventilation displayed on the simulator. Assessment of the analytical thinking and pattern recognition ability was carried out before and after the display of the scenarios. Pre- and posttest scores were collected. Results: The postsimulation test scores were higher than pretest scores and were statistically significant in hemodynamic monitoring and mechanical ventilation module. [Hemodynamic monitoring pre- and posttest scores 4.41 (2.06) vs 5.23 (2.22) p < 0.001] [Mechanical ventilation pre- and posttest scores 4 (2–5.5) vs 7.5 (6.5–8.5) p < 0.001]. A greater increase in posttest scores was seen in the mechanical ventilation module as compared to hemodynamic module. There was no effect of specialty or designation of a trainee on difference in pre- and posttest scores. Conclusion: Simulator-based training in hemodynamic monitoring and mechanical ventilation was effective. Comparison of routine classroom teaching and simulator-based training needs to be evaluated prospectively.



Abdul S Ansari

Cytokine Storm in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Expert Management Considerations

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:429 - 434]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23415  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim/objective/introduction: Cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is inevitable in severe and critically ill patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This review aimed to discuss current therapeutic options for the management of CRS in COVID-19. Background: Cytokine storm is caused by the colossal release of proinflammatory cytokines [e.g., IL (interleukin)-2, IL-6, IL-8 TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α, etc.] causing dysregulated, hyperimmune response. This immunopathogenesis leads to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Targeting cytokine storm with the therapies that are already available in India with the support of published guidelines and consensus can assist in achieving a better outcome in COVID-19. Review results: We predominantly included published guidelines or consensus recommendations about the management of cytokine storm in COVID-19. From the existing literature evidence, it is observed that among the currently available agents, low-dose corticosteroids and heparin can be beneficial in managing cytokine storm. The use of serine protease inhibitors such as ulinastatin has been advised by some experts. Though therapies such as high-dose vitamin C and interleukin-6 inhibitors (e.g., tocilizumab) have been advised, the evidence regarding their use for cytokine storm in COVID-19 is limited. Therapies such as Janus kinase inhibitors (JAK) inhibitors and Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1) antagonists are still in research. Besides, pharmaceutical treatments, use of blood purification strategies, and convalescent plasma may be life-saving options in some of the critically ill COVID-19 patients. For these therapies, there is a need to generate further evidence to substantiate their use in CRS management. Conclusion: Current management of COVID-19 is preventive and supportive. Different therapies can be used to prevent and treat the cytokine storm. More research is needed for further supporting the use of these treatments in COVID-19.



Sushma Bhatnagar

Symptom Management and Supportive Care of Serious COVID-19 Patients and their Families in India

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:10] [Pages No:435 - 444]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23400  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing a worldwide humanitarian crisis. Old age, comorbid conditions, end-stage organ impairment, and advanced cancer, increase the risk of mortality in serious COVID-19. A subset of serious COVID-19 patients with serious acute respiratory illness may be triaged not to receive aggressive intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and ventilation or may be discontinued from ventilation due to their underlying conditions. Those not eligible for aggressive ICU measures should receive appropriate symptom management. Early warning scores (EWS), oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate, can facilitate categorizing COVID-19 patients as stable, unstable, and end of life. Breathlessness, delirium, respiratory secretions, and pain, are the key symptoms that need to be assessed and palliated. Palliative sedation measures are needed to manage intractable symptoms. Goals of care should be discussed, and advance care plan should be made in patients who are unlikely to benefit from aggressive ICU measures and ventilation. For patients who are already in an ICU, either ventilated or needing ventilation, a futility assessment is made. If there is a consensus on futility, a family meeting is conducted either virtually or face to face depending on the infection risk and infection control protocol. The family should be sensitively communicated about the futility of ICU measures and foregoing life-sustaining treatment. Family meeting outcomes are documented, and consent for foregoing life-sustaining treatment is obtained. Appropriate symptom management enables comfort at the end of life to all serious COVID-19 patients not receiving or not eligible to receive ICU measures and ventilation.


Pediatric Critical Care

Kamran Zaman, Vijai Williams, Abhay Kumar

Clinical Profile and Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission in Pediatric Scrub Typhus: A Retrospective Observational Study from North India

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:445 - 450]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23445  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Children with scrub typhus may present with one or more organ failures. Identifying the predictors of severe disease and need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission would help clinicians during outbreak seasons. Materials and methods: This observational study included 160 children admitted to the emergency department (ED) with scrub typhus confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between January 2013 and December 2015. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and predictors for PICU admission were identified. Results: There was a seasonal trend with peak presentation in post-monsoon months between August and October. Mean (SD) age at presentation was 6.8 (3.2) years. Fever was present in all with a median (IQR) duration of 9 (6–11) days. Respiratory distress (42%), altered sensorium (24%), hepatomegaly (93%), splenomegaly (57%), and lymphadenopathy (54%) were other features. Rash and eschar were noted in 24% each. Thrombocytopenia (83%), hypoalbuminemia (63%), and hyponatremia (62%) were common laboratory abnormalities. Meningoencephalitic presentation was noted in 29%; acute kidney injury (AKI) (16%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (11%), and myocarditis (3%) were other organ dysfunctions. Sixty-six (41%) children required PICU admission. Intensive care needs include invasive ventilation (n = 27, 17%), vasoactive drugs therapy for hemodynamic support (n = 43, 27%), osmotherapy to treat raised intracranial pressure (n = 27, 17%), and renal replacement therapy (n = 3, 2%). Mortality was 8.8%. On multivariable analysis, lymphadenopathy, respiratory distress, shock, elevated lactate, and meningoencephalitis predicted the requirement of PICU admission. Conclusion: Scrub typhus presents with organ dysfunction during post-monsoon months. We identified predictors of intensive care in children with scrub typhus admitted to ED. Clinical significance: Our results would help clinicians identify severe cases and prioritize resources.


Pediatric Critical Care

Duangtip Tiacharoen, Rojjanee Lertbunrian, Jarin Veawpanich, Nattanicha Suppalarkbunlue, Nattachai Anantasit

Protocolized Sedative Weaning vs Usual Care in Pediatric Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:8] [Pages No:451 - 458]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23465  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: The prolonged use of benzodiazepines and opioids can lead to an increase in the incidence of withdrawal syndrome. One of the known risk factors is the lack of a sedative-weaning protocol. This study established a sedative-weaning protocol and compared this protocol with the usual care of weaning in high-risk critically ill children. Materials and methods: This was an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a tertiary-care hospital. We recruited children aged 1 month to 18 years who had received intravenous sedative or analgesic drugs for at least 5 days. The exclusion criteria were patients who had already experienced the withdrawal syndrome. We established a weaning protocol. Eligible patients were randomly divided into the protocolized (intervention) and usual care (control) groups. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of the withdrawal syndrome compared between two groups. Results: Thirty eligible patients were enrolled (19 in the intervention and 11 in the control group). Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between both the groups. The prevalence of the withdrawal syndrome was 84% and 81% of patients in the intervention and control group, respectively. The duration of the initial weaning phase was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (p value = 0.026). The cumulative dose of morphine solution for rescue therapy in the intervention group was statistically lower than that in the control group (p value = 0.016). Conclusion: The implementation of the sedative-weaning protocol led to a significant reduction in the percentage of withdrawal days and length of intensive care unit stay without any adverse drug reactions. External validation would be needed to validate this protocol. identifier: NCT03018977


Pediatric Critical Care

Laila M Hegazy, Ahmed R Rezk, Hossam M Sakr, Asmaa S Ahmed

Comparison of Efficacy of LUS and CXR in the Diagnosis of Children Presenting with Respiratory Distress to Emergency Department

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:459 - 464]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23459  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Respiratory distress (RD) in children is a life-threatening condition. Delay in diagnosis has a deleterious effect on morbidity and mortality. The bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE) is a fast method that aims to accelerate the diagnosis with minimal radiological exposure. We targeted to evaluate the efficacy of BLUE protocol to speed and increase the precision of recognizing the cause of RD compared with chest X-ray (CXR) in the emergency department. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study on 63 children with RD attended the emergency of a tertiary, university-affiliated, pediatric medical center between January 2017 and January 2018. Results: Most cases were males 52.4%. We designed to estimate the value of BLUE as a diagnostic tool for RD and comparing it with CXR. Pneumonia with or without pleural effusion was the main etiology of RD detected by BLUE in 47.7% of studied children, pulmonary edema in 22.2%, bronchiolitis and asthma in 17.4%, and pneumothorax in 12.7%. Lung ultrasound (LUS) was superior to CXR in the diagnosis of RD cause, and most cases, 47.7% were diagnosed with pneumonia with a sensitivity of 93.5% and specificity 96.9%. Conclusion: Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency is an effective tool for identifying the cause of RD which is more sensitive and specific compared with CXR.


Pediatric Critical Care

Karan Raheja

Association of Urinary Albumin:Creatinine Ratio with Outcome of Children with Sepsis

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:8] [Pages No:465 - 472]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23463  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) with regard to the outcome of sepsis patients and to study the trends of ACR with severity of disease, organ dysfunction, microcirculation status, the use of inotrope, and mechanical ventilation use, and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay. Materials and methods: In the prospective observational study, the patients with varying categories of sepsis admitted in the PICU with stay >24 hours were enrolled consecutively. Urine samples were collected at the time of admission (ACR1), 12 hours (ACR2), and 24 hours (ACR3). Results: One hundred and thirty-eight patients including 56 cases of sepsis, 31 of severe sepsis, 22 of septic shock, and 29 of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) cases were analyzed. There were 29 (21%) deaths. ACR (median, IQR) was significantly higher in nonsurvivors [ACR1 198.9 (111.2–329.4) vs 124.5 (59.37–294.5), p 0.03], [ACR2 213.8 (112.5–350) vs 117.8 (62.6–211.9) p 0.008], [ACR3 231.8 (99.9–441.2 vs 114.4 (44.1–240.3), p 0.005]. The ACR is increased progressively with the increasing severity of sepsis (p < 0.001). The performance of ACR operative characteristics was compared with that of PRISM and PELOD scores. In deceased, ACR was significantly correlated with blood pH, lactate, and base deficit. A cutoff value of ACR 102.7 mg/g had sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 40.4%, positive predictive value 27.8%, and negative predictive value 91.7%. The use of inotropes, mechanical ventilation (>48 hours), and mortality was significantly higher in patients with ACR >102 mg/g. The probability of death varied from 17.6 to 19% in the first 24 hours of admission. ACR was significantly cheaper as compared to PRISM score and PELOD score estimations. Conclusion: Urinary ACR, a cost-effective tool, correlates with the severity of sepsis and associated morbidity and mortality in children.



Nitin Choudhary, Ashish Walian, Jasvinder K Kohli

Pulmonary Vascular Permeability Indices: Fine Prints of Lung Protection?

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:473 - 474]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23446  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Challenging Management of Refractory Metabolic Acidosis and Acute Kidney Injury in a Child with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:475 - 476]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23449  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most serious complication of type I diabetes mellitus (DM) in children. Majority of these patients respond to fluid resuscitation, insulin, and supportive measures and rarely require renal replacement therapy. Here, we report the case of a young girl with DKA with severe refractory metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury (AKI) and was successfully managed with renal replacement therapy.



Sibabratta Patnaik, Amit R Rup, Abhinav Gaurav

A Rare Case of Podophyllin Poisoning: Early Intervention is Lifesaving

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:3] [Pages No:477 - 479]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23448  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Accidental poisoning in children is very common, making up 10.9% of all unintentional injuries worldwide. Africa has the highest incidence of fatal poisonings worldwide, at 4 per 100,000. Poisoning with podophyllin is rare, with most cases documented around the 1970s to 1980s. Podophyllin is a resin mixture obtained from the dried Rhizome and roots of Podophyllin peltatum (North America) and Podopyllin emodi (India). Podophyllotoxin is the most toxic chemical present in the podophyllin, which is lipid soluble; so crosses the cell membrane easily and inhibits mitotic spindle formation. Both topical application and oral consumption can cause podophyllin poisoning. Neurotoxicity is the most serious effect along with bone marrow depression, gastrointestinal irritation, and hepatic and renal dysfunction. Management of podophyllin toxicity is mainly symptomatic, and no specific antidote exists. We report a case of a 2-year-old-year girl with accidental podophyllin poisoning, who presented with neurotoxicity followed by multiorgan dysfunction and then succumbed. Education of parents and healthcare workers on home safety still remains the mainstay of prevention.



Mridula Muthe, Anagha Joshi, Vikrant Firke

An Unusual Case of a Displaced Hemodialysis Catheter Guidewire Spontaneously Coming Out of Skull

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:3] [Pages No:480 - 482]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23462  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hemodialysis catheter insertion is a common practice for the patients with renal failure. There are several complications associated with hemodialysis catheter insertion such as infection, catheter thrombosis, malposition, or vein stenosis; however, loss of guidewire during catheter insertion with its migration is a rare complication. We report the case of a 75-year-old male with forgotten displaced guidewire which came out spontaneously from the skull in the occipital region, three years after the hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only case that has been reported in literature till date. We also discuss the possible causes of a retained guidewire and measure to prevent it.



Nishant R Tiwari, Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Kevin P Haas, Vivek R Sharma

Antiplatelet Agents in Sepsis—Putting it all together: A Call to Action

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:483 - 484]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23450  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Lakshmi N Yaddanapudi, Govardhan D Puri

Barrier Protection during Airway Intubation

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:485 - 486]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23460  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Ankit Kumar Sahu, Ghanashyam Timilsina

“Six-dial Strategy”—Mechanical Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:3] [Pages No:487 - 489]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23464  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


As per current guidelines, whenever an advanced airway is in place during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, positive pressure ventilation should be provided without pausing for chest compression. Positive pressure ventilation can be provided through bag-valve resuscitator (BV) or mechanical ventilator (MV), which was found to be equally efficacious. In a busy emergency department, with less trained personnel use of MV is advantageous over BV in terms of reducing human errors and relieving the airway manager to focus on other resuscitation tasks. Currently, there are no guidelines specific to MV settings in cardiac arrest. We present a concept of “six-dial ventilator strategy during CPR” that encompasses the evidence-based settings appropriate during chest compression. We suggest use of volume control ventilation with the following settings: (1) positive end-expiratory pressure of 0 cm of water (to allow venous return), (2) tidal volume of 8 mL/kg with fraction of inspired oxygen at 100% (for adequate oxygenation), (3) respiratory rate of 10 per minute (for adequate ventilation), (4) maximum peak inspiratory pressure or Pmax alarm of 60 cm of water (to allow tidal volume delivery during chest compression), (5) switching OFF trigger (to avoid trigger by chest recoil), and (6) inspiratory to expiratory time ratio of 1:5 (to provide adequate inspiratory time of 1 second).



Mamatha Guruprasad

Accidental Acute Talcum Powder Inhalation in an Adult: A Rare Case with a Short Review of Literature

[Year:2020] [Month:June] [Volume:24] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:490 - 491]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23451  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Acute talc powder inhalation is very rare in adults, though it is commonly reported in the infants and children. This is a report of a medical student who collapsed following accidental inhalation of talc powder at the college premises. A short review of the symptoms and complications along with the pathophysiology of pulmonary injury in acute talc inhalation also has been discussed over here.


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