Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) with regard to the outcome of sepsis patients and to study the trends of ACR with severity of disease, organ dysfunction, microcirculation status, the use of inotrope, and mechanical ventilation use, and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay.
Materials and methods: In the prospective observational study, the patients with varying categories of sepsis admitted in the PICU with stay >24 hours were enrolled consecutively. Urine samples were collected at the time of admission (ACR1), 12 hours (ACR2), and 24 hours (ACR3).
Results: One hundred and thirty-eight patients including 56 cases of sepsis, 31 of severe sepsis, 22 of septic shock, and 29 of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) cases were analyzed. There were 29 (21%) deaths. ACR (median, IQR) was significantly higher in nonsurvivors [ACR1 198.9 (111.2–329.4) vs 124.5 (59.37–294.5), p 0.03], [ACR2 213.8 (112.5–350) vs 117.8 (62.6–211.9) p 0.008], [ACR3 231.8 (99.9–441.2 vs 114.4 (44.1–240.3), p 0.005]. The ACR is increased progressively with the increasing severity of sepsis (p < 0.001). The performance of ACR operative characteristics was compared with that of PRISM and PELOD scores. In deceased, ACR was significantly correlated with blood pH, lactate, and base deficit. A cutoff value of ACR 102.7 mg/g had sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 40.4%, positive predictive value 27.8%, and negative predictive value 91.7%. The use of inotropes, mechanical ventilation (>48 hours), and mortality was significantly higher in patients with ACR >102 mg/g. The probability of death varied from 17.6 to 19% in the first 24 hours of admission. ACR was significantly cheaper as compared to PRISM score and PELOD score estimations.
Conclusion: Urinary ACR, a cost-effective tool, correlates with the severity of sepsis and associated morbidity and mortality in children.