Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2020 | January | Volume 24 | Issue S1

EDITORIAL

Atul A Kulkarni

Let there be Guidance!!!

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:24] [Number:S1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:S1 - S1]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23181  |  Open Access | 

COMMENTARY

Farhad Kapadia

Suggestions and Commentary on Creating, Interpreting and Using Clinical Practice Guidelines

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:24] [Number:S1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:S2 - S5]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23182  |  Open Access | 

GUIDELINES/POSITION STATEMENTS

Sachin Gupta, Rajesh Chandra Mishra, Zubair Mohamed, KV Venkatesha Gupta, Nilanchal Chakrabortty

Tracheostomy in Adult Intensive Care Unit: An ISCCM Expert Panel Practice Recommendations

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:24] [Number:S1] [Pages:12] [Pages No:S31 - S42]

Keywords: Coagulopathy, Obesity, Percutaneous dilatational, Recommendations, Tracheostomy, Ultrasound

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23184  |  Open Access | 

Abstract

Background and Aim: Critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation undergo tracheostomy to facilitate weaning. The practice in India may be different from the rest of the world and therefore, in order to understand this, ISCCM conducted a multicentric observational study “DIlatational percutaneous vs Surgical tracheoStomy in intEnsive Care uniT: A practice pattern observational multicenter study (DISSECT Study)” followed by an ISCCM Expert Panel committee meeting to formulate Practice recommendations pertinent to Indian ICUs. Materials and methods: All existing International guidelines on the topic, various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, systematic reviews, retrospective studies were taken into account to formulate the guidelines. Wherever Indian data was not available, international data was analysed. A modified Grade system was followed for grading the recommendation. Results: After analyzing the entire available data, the recommendations were made by the grading system agreed by the Expert Panel. The recommendations took into account the indications and contraindications of tracheostomy; effect of timing of tracheostomy on incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia, ICU length of stay, ventilator free days & Mortality; comparison of surgical and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in terms of incidence of complications and cost to the patient; Comparison of various techniques of PDT; Use of fiberoptic bronchoscope and ultrasound in PDT; experience of the operator and qualification; certain special conditions like coagulopathy and morbid obesity. Conclusion: This document presents the first Indian recommendations on tracheostomy in adult critically ill patients based on the practices of the country. These guidelines are expected to improve the safety and extend the indications of tracheostomy in critically ill patients.

GUIDELINES/POSITION STATEMENTS

Narendra Rungta, Kapil Gangadhar Zirpe, Subhal B Dixit, Rajesh C Mishra, Jeetendra Sharma, BK Rao, GC Khilnani, Kundan Mittal, AK Baronia, Neena Rungta, Ranvir Tyagi, Sanjay Dhanuka, Mahesh Mishra

Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine Experts Committee Consensus Statement on ICU Planning and Designing, 2020

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:24] [Number:S1] [Pages:18] [Pages No:S43 - S60]

Keywords: Critical care, Health care workers (HCW), HDU, Healthcare, hospital, ICU (Intensive Care Unit), ICU beds, ICU doctors, India

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23185  |  Open Access | 

Abstract

Background: Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) guidelines on Planning and Designing Intensive care (ICU) were first developed in 2001 and later updated in 2007. These guidelines were adopted in India, many developing Nations and major Institutions including NABH. Various international professional bodies in critical care have their own position papers and guidelines on planning and designing of ICUs; being the professional body of intensivists in India ISCCM therefore addresses the subject in contemporary context relevant to our clinical practice, its variability according to specialty and subspecialty, quality, resource limitation, size and location of the institution. Aim: To have a consensus document reflecting the philosophy of ISCCM to deliver safe & quality Critical Care in India, taking into consideration the requirement of regulatory agencies (national & international) and need of people at large, including promotion of training, education and skill upgradation. It also aiming to promote leadership and development and managerial skill among the critical care team. Material and Methods: Extensive review of literature including search of databases in English language, resources of regulatory bodies, guidelines and recommendations of international critical care societies. National Survey of ISCCM members and experts to understand their viewpoints on respective issues. Visiting of different types and levels of ICUs by team members to understand prevailing practices, aspiration and Challenges. Several face to face meetings of the expert committee members in big and small groups with extensive discussions, presentations, brain storming and development of initial consensus draft. Discussion on draft through video conferencing, phone calls, Emails circulations, one to one discussion Result: Based upon extensive review, survey and input of experts\' ICUs were categorized in to three levels suitable in Indian setting. Level III ICUs further divided into sub category A and B. Recommendations were grouped in to structure, equipment and services of ICU with consideration of variation in level of ICU of different category of hospitals. Conclusion: This paper summarizes consensus statement of various aspect of ICU planning and design. Defined mandatory and desirable standards of all level of ICUs and made recommendations regarding structure and layout of ICUs. Definition of intensive care and intensivist, planning for strength of ICU and requirement of manpower were also described.

GUIDELINES/POSITION STATEMENTS

Subhal B Dixit, Kapil Gangadhar Zirpe, G C Khilnani, Khalid Ismail Khatib, Rajesh C Mishra, Sachin Gupta, Suresh Ramasubban, Jayesh Dobariya, Vikas Marwah, Inder Sehgal, Dr Sameer Arvind Jog, Atul Prabhakar Kulkarni

ISCCM Guidelines for the Use of Non-invasive Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure in Adult ICUs

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:24] [Number:S1] [Pages:21] [Pages No:S61 - S81]

Keywords: Acute respiratory failure, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Guidelines, ICU, Mechanical ventilation, Non invasive ventilation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23186  |  Open Access | 

Abstract

A. ACUTE HYPERCAPNIC RESPIRATORY FAILURE A1. Acute Exacerbation of COPD: Recommendations: NIV should be used in management of acute exacerbation of COPD in patients with acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH = 7.25-7.35). (1A) NIV should be attempted in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (pH <7.25 & PaCO2 ? 45) before initiating invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) except in patients requiring immediate intubation. (2A). Lower the pH higher the chance of failure of NIV. (2B) NIV should not to be used routinely in normo- or mildly hyper-capneic patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, without acidosis (pH > 7.35). (2B) A2. NIV in ARF due to Chest wall deformities/Neuromuscular diseases: Recommendations: NIV may be used in patients of ARF due to chest wall deformity/Neuromuscular diseases. (PaCO2 ? 45) (UPP) A3. NIV in ARF due to Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS): Recommendations: NIV may be used in AHRF in OHS patients when they present with acute hypercapnic or acute on chronic respiratory failure (pH 45). (3B) NIV/CPAP may be used in obese, hypercapnic patients with OHS and/or right heart failure in the absence of acidosis. (UPP) B. NIV IN ACUTE HYPOXEMIC RESPIRATORY FAILURE: B1. NIV in Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema: Recommendations: NIV is recommended in hospital patients with ARF, due to Cardiogenic pulmonary edema. (1A). NIV should be used in patients with acute heart failure/cardiogenic pulmonary edema, right from emergency department itself. (1B) Both CPAP and BiPAP modes are safe and effective in patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. (1A). However, BPAP (NIV-PS) should be preferred in cardiogenic pulmonary edema with hypercapnia. (3A) B2. NIV in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: Recommendations: NIV may be used over conventional oxygen therapy in mild early acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (P/F ratio <300 and > 200 mmHg), under close supervision. (2B) We strongly recommend against a trial of NIV in patients with acute hypoxemic failure with P/F ratio <150. (2A) B3. NIV in ARF due to Chest Trauma: Recommendations: NIV may be used in traumatic flail chest along with adequate pain relief. (3B) B4. NIV in Immunocompromised Host: Recommendations: In Immunocompromised patients with early ARF, we may consider NIV over conventional oxygen. (2B). B5. NIV in Palliative Care: Recommendations: We strongly recommend use of NIV for reducing dyspnea in palliative care setting. (2A) B6. NIV in post-operative cases: Recommendations: NIV should be used in patients with post-operative acute respiratory failure. (2A) B6a. NIV in abdominal surgery: Recommendations: NIV may be used in patients with ARF following abdominal surgeries. (2A) B6b. NIV in bariatric surgery: Recommendations: NIV may be used in post-bariatric surgery patients with pre-existent OSA or OHS. (3A) B6c. NIV in Thoracic surgery: Recommendations: In cardiothoracic surgeries, use of NIV is recommended post operatively for acute respiratory failure to improve oxygenation and reduce chance of reintubation. (2A) NIV should not be used in patients undergoing esophageal surgery. (UPP) B6d. NIV in post lung transplant: Recommendations: NIV may be used for shortening weaning time and to avoid re-intubation following lung transplantation. (2B) B7. NIV during Procedures (ETI/Bronchoscopy/TEE/Endoscopy): Recommendations: NIV may be used for pre-oxygenation before intubation. (2B) NIV with appropriate interface may be used in patients of ARF during Bronchoscopy/Endoscopy to improve oxygenation. (3B) B8. NIV in Viral Pneumonitis ARDS: Recommendations: NIV cannot be considered as a treatment of choice for patients with acute respiratory failure with H1N1 pneumonia. However, it may be reasonable to use NIV in selected patients with single organ involvement, in a strictly controlled environment with close monitoring. (2B) B9. NIV and Acute exacerbation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Recommendations: Careful use of NIV in patients with acute Tuberculosis may be considered, with effective infection control precautions to prevent air-borne transmission. (3B) B10. NIV after planned extubation in high risk patients: Recommendation: We recommend that NIV may be used to wean high risk patients from invasive mechanical ventilation as it reduces re-intubation rate. (2B) B11. NIV for respiratory distress post extubation: Recommendations: We recommend that NIV therapy should not be used to manage respiratory distress post-extubation in high risk patients. (2B) C. APPLICATION OF NIV: Recommendation: Choice of mode should be mainly decided by factors like disease etiology and severity, the breathing effort by the patient and the operator familiarity and experience. (UPP) We suggest using flow trigger over pressure triggering in assisted modes, as it provides better patient ventilator synchrony. Especially in COPD patients, flow triggering has been found to benefit auto PEEP. (3B) D. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT ON NIV: D1. Sedation: Recommendations: A non-pharmacological approach to calm the patient (Reassuring the patient, proper environment) should always be tried before administrating sedatives. (UPP) In patients on NIV, sedation may be used with extremely close monitoring and only in an ICU setting with lookout for signs of NIV failure. (UPP) E. EQUIPMENT: Recommendations: We recommend that portable bilevel ventilators or specifically designed ICU ventilators with non-invasive mode should be used for delivering Non-invasive ventilation in critically ill patients. (UPP) Both critical care ventilators with leak compensation and bi-level ventilators have been equally effective in decreasing the WOB, RR, and PaCO2. (3B) Currently, Oronasal mask is the most preferred interface for non-invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. (3B) F. WEANING: Recommendations: We recommend that weaning from NIV may be done by a standardized protocol driven approach of the unit. (2B)

GUIDELINES/POSITION STATEMENTS

Ganshyam Jagathkar, Kapil Gangadhar Zirpe, Rajesh C Mishra, Rahul Anil Pandit, Raymond Dominic Savio, Anuj M Clerk, Tapas Kumar Sahoo, Srinivas Jakkinaboina, Nandhakishore Jampala

Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine Position Statement for Central Venous Catheterization and Management 2020

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:24] [Number:S1] [Pages:25] [Pages No:S6 - S30]

Keywords: Central venous catheterization,CRBSI,Infection control,Position statement,Surveillance

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23183  |  Open Access | 

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Short-term central venous catheterization (CVC) is one of the commonly used invasive interventions in ICU and other patient-care areas. Practice and management of CVC is not standardized, varies widely, and need appropriate guidance. Purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive, evidence-based and up-to-date, one document source for practice and management of central venous catheterization. These recommendations are intended to be used by critical care physicians and allied professionals involved in care of patients with central venous lines.
Methods: This position statement for central venous catheterization is framed by expert committee members under the aegis of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM). Experts group exchanged and reviewed the relevant literature. During the final meeting of the experts held at the ISCCM Head Office, a consensus on all the topics was made and the recommendations for final document draft were prepared. The final document was reviewed and accepted by all expert committee members and after a process of peer-review this document is finally accepted as an official ISCCM position paper.
  Modified grade system was utilized to classify the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations. The draft document thus formulated was reviewed by all committee members; further comments and suggestions were incorporated after discussion, and a final document was prepared.
Results: This document makes recommendations about various aspects of resource preparation, infection control, prevention of mechanical complication and surveillance related to short-term central venous catheterization. This document also provides four appendices for ready reference and use at institutional level.
Conclusion: In this document, committee is able to make 54 different recommendations for various aspects of care, out of which 40 are strong and 14 weak recommendations. Among all of them, 42 recommendations are backed by any level of evidence, however due to paucity of data on 12 clinical questions, a consensus was reached by working committee and practice recommendations given on these topics are based on vast clinical experience of the members of this committee, which makes a useful practice point. Committee recognizes the fact that in event of new emerging evidences this document will require update, and that shall be provided in due time.
Abbreviations list: ABHR: Alcohol-based hand rub; AICD: Automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator; BSI: Blood stream infection; C/SS: CHG/silver sulfadiazine; Cath Lab: Catheterization laboratory (Cardiac Cath Lab); CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CFU: Colony forming unit; CHG: Chlorhexidine gluconate; CL: Central line; COMBUX: Comparison of Bedside Ultrasound with Chest X-ray (COMBUX study); CQI: Continuous quality improvement; CRBSI: Catheter-related blood stream infection; CUS: Chest ultrasonography; CVC: Central Venous Catheter; CXR: Chest X-ray; DTTP: Differential time to positivity; DVT: Deep venous thrombosis; ECG: Electrocardiography; ELVIS: Ethanol lock and risk of hemodialysis catheter infection in critically ill patients; ER: Emergency room; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; FV: Femoral vein; GWE: Guidewire exchange; HD catheter: Hemodialysis catheter; HTS: Hypertonic saline; ICP: Intracranial pressure; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; IDSA: Infectious Disease Society of America; IJV: Internal jugular vein; IPC: Indian penal code; IRR: Incidence rate ratio; ISCCM: Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine; IV: Intravenous; LCBI: Laboratory confirmed blood stream infection; M/R: Minocycline/rifampicin; MBI-LCBI: Mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection; MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; NHS: National Health Service (UK); NHSN: National Healthcare Safety Network (USA); OT: Operation Theater; PICC: Peripherally-inserted central catheter; PIV: Peripheral intravenous line; PL: Peripheral line; PVI: Povidone-iodine; RA: Right atrium; RCT: Randomized controlled trial; RR: Relative risk; SCV/SV: Subclavian vein; ScVO2: Central venous oxygen saturation; Sn: Sensitivity; SOP: Standard operating procedure; SVC: Superior vena cava; TEE: Transesophageal echocardiography; UPP: Useful Practice Points; USG: Ultrasonography; WHO: World Health Organization

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