Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2022 | February | Volume 26 | Issue 2

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Chulananda Goonasekera, Lakshman Karalliedde

Laryngeal Dysfunction and Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:155 - 156]

Keywords: Acute poisoning intensive care unit, Critical care, Intensive care unit mortality, Intensive care unit outcomes, Respiratory distress, Toxicology, Toxidrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Resilience—Need of the Hour for the “Frontliners”

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:157 - 158]

Keywords: Anxiety, COVID warriors, COVID-19, Fear, Frontline nurses, Insomnia severity, Mental health, Mental health outcomes, Resilience, Stress

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24123  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Doppler-estimated Carotid and Brachial Artery Flow as Surrogate for Cardiac Output: Needs Further Validation

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:159 - 160]

Keywords: Brachial artery velocity time integral, Carotid artery velocity time integral, Fluid responsiveness, Left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Patients' Family Satisfaction in Intensive Care Unit: A Leap Forward

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:161 - 163]

Keywords: Care quality, Communication, Critical care, Family, Family-centered critical care, Family communication, Family presence, Family satisfaction, Non-survivors, Satisfaction

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24120  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Fibrinolysis and D-dimer in COVID-19: A Twisted Plot!

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:164 - 166]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019, D-dimer, Fibrinolysis, Plasminogen, Point-of-care testing, Thromboembolism

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the associated pathophysiological perturbations continue to bewilder the fraternity at large. In this context, the thromboembolic predisposition in COVID-19 has particularly emerged as a matter of an ardent debate. The index commentary aims to present an account of the recent developments in the understanding of the immunothrombosis in the enigmatical setting of COVID-19.


Original Article

Gajalakshmi S Mani, Punitha Victor, John V Peter, Rita RA Albert

Laryngeal Dysfunction in Acute Organophosphorus and Carbamate Poisoning

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:167 - 173]

Keywords: Aspiration, Organophosphorus poisoning, Poisoning, Subglottic stenosis, Vocal cord paralysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24096  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides are widely used for crop protection. We describe the spectrum of laryngeal abnormalities in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute OP and carbamate poisoning as there is limited information on it. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with acute OP and carbamate poisoning over 20 months (December 2014–July 2016) were recruited. Patients were followed up post-discharge if they had undergone tracheostomy or developed hoarseness of voice or stridor following extubation. Asymptomatic individuals who consented underwent laryngoscopy after ICU discharge. The primary outcome was the development of laryngeal dysfunction. Other outcomes included length of stay, need for ventilation, mortality, tracheostomy, and time to decannulation of tracheostomy. Results: Of the 136 patients recruited, 71 (52%) underwent laryngoscopy. The overall mortality rate was 9.6%. Of the 71 patients who underwent laryngoscopy, 18 had abnormal findings, which included unilateral or bilateral vocal cord paresis or palsy (n = 14) and/or aspiration (n = 9), subglottic stenosis (n = 1), tracheal stenosis (n = 1), or arytenoid granuloma (n = 1). Laryngeal dysfunction was associated with the ingestion of a dimethyl OP compound (p = 0.04) and quantum consumed (p <0.001). Patients with laryngeal dysfunction had significantly (p = 0.004) longer hospital stay (19.1 ± 10.7 vs 11.8 ± 8.3 days). Conclusion: Laryngeal dysfunction is not uncommon in OP and carbamate poisoning and is associated with the ingestion of larger quantity of a dimethyl OP compound and longer hospital stay. Otorhinolaryngologists could be involved early to help identify these abnormalities and initiate an appropriate treatment to ensure a functional voice and good airway.


Original Article

Aseem Mehra, Navneet Sharma

Mental Health Outcomes of Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Fear and Insomnia, and the Resilience among Frontline Nurses Caring for Critical COVID-19 Patients in Intensive Care Units

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:174 - 178]

Keywords: Anxiety, Coronavirus disease warriors, Coronavirus disease-2019, Fear, Frontline nurses, Insomnia severity, Mental health outcomes, Resilience, Stress

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24119  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a significant disruption in healthcare delivery and poses a unique long-term stressor among frontline nurses. Hence, the investigators planned to explore the adverse mental health outcomes and the resilience of frontline nurses caring for COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional online survey using Google form consisted of questionnaires on perceived stress scale (PSS-10), generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7), Fear Scale for Healthcare Professionals regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, insomnia severity index, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC) were administered among the nurses working in COVID ICUs of a tertiary care center in North India. Results: A considerable number of subjects in the study reported symptoms of distress (68.5%), anxiety (54.7%), fear (44%), and insomnia (31%). Resilience among the frontline nurses demonstrated a moderate to a high level with a mean percentage score of 77.5 (31.23 ± 4.68). A negative correlation was found between resilience and adverse mental outcomes; hence, resilience is a reliable tool to mitigate the adverse psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Emphasizing the well-being of the nurses caring for critical COVID-19 patients during the pandemic is necessary to enable them to provide high-quality nursing care.


Original Article

Praveen Dhakane, Rutuja Phulambrikar

Correlation between Carotid and Brachial Artery Velocity Time Integral and Their Comparison to Pulse Pressure Variation and Stroke Volume Variation for Assessing Fluid Responsiveness

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:179 - 184]

Keywords: Fluid responders, Fluid responsiveness, Hypoperfusion, Hypovolemia, Pulse pressure variation, Stroke volume variation, Velocity time integral

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Fluid boluses are used in hemodynamically unstable patients with presumed hypovolemia, to improve tissue perfusion, in the perioperative period. Now less invasive methods, such as pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) are increasingly being used. We investigated correlation between carotid and brachial artery velocity time integral (VTI) and compared both with PPV and SVV. Methods: We recruited 27 patients undergoing supra-major abdominal surgeries. When indicated (hypotension or increased lactate), a fluid bolus was given after measuring carotid and brachial artery VTI, PPV, and SVV. The change in SV was noted and patients were categorized as responders if the SV increased by >15%. We performed Bland Altman Agreement and calculated best sensitivity and specificity for the parameters. Results: Patients were found to be fluid responders on 29 instances. The correlation between PPV, SVV, carotid and brachial artery VTI was poor and the limits of agreement between them were wide. The Area under Curve (AUC) for PPV was 0.69, for SVV was 0.63, while those of Carotid and Brachial artery VTI (TAP and flow) were (0.53 and 0.54 for carotid) and (0.51 and 0.56 for brachial) respectively. Conclusion: We found poor agreement and weak correlation between both VTi (TAP and flow) measured at carotid and brachial arteries, suggesting that the readings at brachial vessel cannot be used interchangeably with those at carotid artery. The PPV and SVV were better than these parameters for predicting fluid responsiveness; however, their predictive ability (AUROC), sensitivity and specificity were much lower than previously reported. Further studies in this area are therefore required (CTRI Reg No: CTRI/2017/08/009243).


Original Article

Ines Fathallah, Houda Drira, Sahar Habacha, Nadia Kouraichi

Can We Satisfy Family in Intensive Care Unit? A Tunisian Experience

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:185 - 191]

Keywords: Critically ill, Experience, Family satisfaction, Healthcare

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Communication improvement and family satisfaction in intensive care unit (ICU) are the main indicators of care quality. Our study aims were to evaluate family satisfaction in our intensive care and identify factors influencing the satisfaction level. Materials and methods: We performed a descriptive prospective study in the ICU of Ben Arous régional hospital conducted between October 2016 and June 2018. We included parents of patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours, with available contact details and they agreed to reply to the questionnaire. Results: One hundred and twelve family representatives were included. Ten (9%) were illiterate and 40 (36%) had a primary level education. Noninvasive ventilation and hemodialysis were, respectively, used in 53 and 9.8% of cases. Thirteen patients had sequelae at their hospital discharge. The median satisfaction score was 133.5 (120; 145.7). Ninety-five (85%) relatives were always satisfied with cleanliness of the unit. The medical and paramedical staff availability was appreciated as excellent, respectively, by 65 (56%) and 66 (59%) family members. The information provided by doctors and paramedical staff was considered very clear by 75 (65%) and 65 (58%) parents, respectively. The medical secret was respected by medical (n = 107) and paramedical (n = 105) staffs in most cases. Patient management was considered excellent by 90 (80%) parents. The level of satisfaction was lower when the parent interviewed was illiterate (p = 0.04) or had a primary-level education (p = 0.012), with hemodialysis resort (p = 0.011) and with the presence of sequelae at hospital discharge (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Family members were satisfied with the unit environment, the communication, the healthcare management, and the patient care. Low education level, hemodialysis use, and sequelae at hospital discharge influence negatively the satisfaction.


Original Article

Mahin Nomali, Aryan Ayati, Mohammad Yadegari, Mahdis Nomali, Mahnaz Modanloo

Physical Restraint and Associated Factors in Adult Patients in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-sectional Study in North of Iran

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:192 - 198]

Keywords: Critical care, Intensive care, Intensive care unit, Physical restraint

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24103  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background/aim: Patients in the intensive care units (ICUs) are at high risk of developing delirium and agitation. Physical restraint (PR) has increased to control these patients which accompanies by adverse consequences. The aim was to determine the PR use and associated factors in patients hospitalized at the ICUs in the North of Iran. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 272 patients in 3 ICUs of 5 Azar referral hospital affiliated to Golestan University of Medical Sciences (Gorgan, Iran) in 2018 were included. Confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were used to evaluate delirium, sedation level, disease severity, and level of consciousness, respectively. Analysis was done by STATA version 14.2 (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas), univariate and multiple analyses. Results: Data from 272 patients were analyzed (mean age of 45.8 ± 21.3 years). PR was used for 74.5% of patients. Restrained patients had more severe disease [mean of APACHE II score, 20.20 (7.5) vs 11.6 (7.1)], longer length of stay [mean of 10 (5.5) vs 5.5 (4.6) days], and lower level of consciousness [mean of GCS score, 8.7 (3.5) vs 13.5 (3.3)] than patients without it. CAM-ICU was positive in majority of patients (79.5 vs 10.4%) and agitation level of RASS score was higher in restrained patients (31.7 vs 3.0%). Associated factors in multiple analysis were use of sedative and psychoactive drugs [odds ratio (OR), 2.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–7.82], presence of delirium (OR, 15.13; 95% CI: 4.61–49.65), deep sedation (OR, 0.04; 95% CI: 0.00–0.45), and GCS score (OR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53–0.9). Conclusion: This study revealed the high use of PR in the ICUs, and use of sedative and psychoactive drugs, presence of delirium, deep sedation, and GCS score were such associated factors.


Original Article

Elham Shahraki Moghadam, Zahra Sadat Manzari, Hossein Rashki Ghalenow, Hajar Noori Sanchooli

Ottawa Decision Support Framework to Improve Iranian Nurses’ Decision Coaching Skills

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:199 - 203]

Keywords: Decision coaching, Decision support, Intensive care units, Iran, Nurses

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Nurses play an important role in providing decision coaching (DC) and developing informed decision-making in families of patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, taking necessary measures to develop nurses’ DC skills is essential. The present study was conducted to analyze the application of the Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF) in developing Iranian nurses’ DC skills. Methodology: In this experimental pretest-posttest study, two hospitals (Imam Reza and Shahid Kamyab hospitals) in the city of Mashhad were randomly placed in either the experimental or the control group. Based on a simple random sampling method, 60 ICU nurses were selected. For nurses in the experimental group, a 2-day workshop was conducted based on the ODSF, whereas nurses in the control group received no intervention. Using the SPSS-16 software and statistical tests of paired-samples t-test, independent-samples t-test, and Chi-square test (p <0.05), the data were analyzed. Results: Before the intervention, no difference was observed in the mean DC scores obtained by the nurses in the experimental and control groups (p = 0.891). However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed in the mean DC scores obtained by the nurses in the experimental and control groups (p <0.001). Conclusion: The results indicated that applying the ODSF is effective in improving Iranian nurses’ DC skills. It was also indicated that the concepts presented in this framework are consistent with Iranian nurses’ cultural backgrounds. Accordingly, the application of the ODSF is offered in Iranian nurses’ continuing education programs to improve their DC skills.


Original Article

Boby Varkey Maramattom

Screening Power of Short Tau Inversion Recovery Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Critical Illness Myoneuropathy and Guillain–Barre Syndrome in the Intensive Care Unit

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:204 - 209]

Keywords: Critical illness myoneuropathy, Critical illness myoneuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging, Critical illness myopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging critical illness polyneuropathy, Magnetic resonance imaging muscle imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging muscle in intensive care unit

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24122  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Critical illness myoneuropathy (CIMN) or intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness (AW) is a common cause of weakness in ICU patients. Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) is also a common cause of acute neurological weakness in the ICU. It is diagnosed by clinical features, nerve conduction studies (NCS), and muscle/nerve biopsies. Methods: The short tau inversion recovery (STIR) muscle magnetic resonance (MR) images of seven patients with suspected CIMN and seven GBS patients over a 5-year period from February 2015 till May 2020 were analyzed. Results: All seven patients with CIMN showed diffuse muscle edema, predominating in the lower limbs. Only one patient with GBS showed abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes (14%) and MRI was normal in 86%. The sensitivity of MRI to detect CIMN was 100%, whereas the specificity was 85.7%. Thus, the positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI in this situation was 87.5% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. Conclusion: Muscle STIR imaging may help to differentiate between CIMN and GBS.


Original Article

Praveen K Javvaji, Padmaja Nagatham, Ramachandra RI Venkata, Harivarsha Puttam, Sanjo K John, Hemapriya Karavalla, Tulasiram Pulivarthi

A Comparison of Full Outline of UnResponsiveness Score with Glasgow Coma Scale Score in Predicting Outcomes among Patients with Altered Mental Status Admitted to the Critical Care Unit

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:210 - 215]

Keywords: Altered sensorium, Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score, Glasgow Coma Scale score

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23921  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score to find the better scoring system for predicting outcomes among altered sensorium patients in the critical care unit. Materials and methods: This is a prospective observational study. It included 100 patients of altered sensorium, whose GCS and FOUR scores were calculated at admission and followed up till death or discharge to note the outcome. Individual demographics and diagnosis were recorded, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The correlation between the two scores was excellent, with the Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.88. Discrimination ability of the two scoring systems, as assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.778 for GCS score and 0.883 for FOUR score (p <0.001). When area under the curve (AUC) was calculated exclusively in stroke cases, it was 0.836 for GCS score and 0.944 for FOUR score. Among nonstroke cases, the AUC was 0.756 and 0.859, respectively. However, the 95% confidence limits were overlapping among the corresponding scores. Conclusion: The above study concludes that there is a good correlation between GCS and FOUR scores in predicting outcomes. Superiority of FOUR score could not be established statistically in view of overlapping confidence limits. However, it performed at par with GCS in prognosticating mortality among patients with altered sensorium. Clinical significance: In critically ill patients with altered sensorium, explaining the prognosis to the attendants is a challenge for the physician. The commonly used GCS score has several shortcomings, especially in intubated patients. Use of the FOUR score can overcome these shortcomings and help in prognostication of these patients. In view of its good correlation with GCS score and equal efficacy in predicting outcomes in varied etiologies, it can be used as a good alternative to the GCS score.


Original Article

Prabhav Bhansaly, Sudhir Mehta, Esha Gupta, Shaurya Mehta, Sweta Gupta

Evaluation of Immature Granulocyte Count as the Earliest Biomarker for Sepsis

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:216 - 223]

Keywords: Biomarker, Early sepsis, Immature granulocyte, Procalcitonin, Sepsis, Sysmex

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23920  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Diagnosing sepsis early is important for its successful management. Various biomarkers are being used currently, but mostly they are either expensive or not readily available. This study aims to evaluate usefulness of automated immature granulocyte count (IG#) and immature granulocyte percentage (IG%) as early diagnostic markers of sepsis and compares it to other established predictive markers. Patients and methods: In this prospective observational study, 137 eligible, critically ill, nonseptic intensive care unit patients were analyzed for automated IG#, IG%, serum procalcitonin (PCT), and blood lactate (Lac), daily for 7 days after recruitment. Patients were followed for the development of sepsis, defined by the new Sepsis-3 criteria. The study was divided into four time periods of 24 hours each with respect to the day of developing organ dysfunction. Using area under receiver operator characteristic and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) methods, the best biomarker for the prediction of sepsis in each time period was calculated. Results: IG# and IG% were the earliest biomarkers to have a significant discriminating value with area under the curve of 0.81 and 0.82, respectively, as early as 24 hours before clinical sepsis is diagnosed by Sepsis-3 criteria. Both IG# and IG% have a high DOR of 34.91 and 18.11, respectively, when compared to others like PCT and Lac having a DOR of 27.06 and 4.78, respectively. Conclusion: IG# and IG% are easily available, rapid, and inexpensive tools to differentiate between septic and nonseptic patients with high specificity and sensitivity. It is the earliest biomarker to show a significant rise in patients developing sepsis.


Meta Summary

Ravi Jain

Vitamin C-induced Hemolysis: Meta-summary and Review of Literature

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:224 - 227]

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Hemolysis, Hemolytic anemia, Vitamin C

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Vitamin C is increasingly being used, and even high doses are considered safe. However, complications including hemolysis have been reported. We performed a systematic search from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases from January 1975 till July 31, 2021. Search terms used were “Vitamin C” OR “ascorbic acid” AND “haemolysis” OR “haemolytic anaemia.” Data regarding patient's demographics, outcomes and dose, duration, and form of vitamin C were extracted. Fourteen case reports matched the selected criteria, with age ranging from 3 weeks to 75 years with 78.6% being males. About 71.4% were diagnosed to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency but previous hemolysis was reported in only two patients, and 57.1% were prescribed vitamin C for nutritional supplementation. The dose ranged from 1 to 200 g/day with 57.1% receiving intravenous formulations. Half of these patients developed other complications including acute kidney injury (AKI), disseminated intravascular coagulation, oxalosis, and methemoglobinemia. About 78.6% developed complications within 3 days of starting vitamin C and only one death was reported. Vitamin C is generally a safe drug but it should be prescribed with caution and only when benefits outweigh the risks. Physicians should be aware of potential complications like severe hemolysis and AKI, especially when using high doses and in G6PD deficiency.



Anis Ghariani, Leila Dhiab, Fehmi Ferhi, Mohamed AB Abdessalem, Abdallah Mahdhaoui, Khaled B Jazia, Gouider Jeridi

Inverted Takotsubo Following a Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy, Treated with Levosimendan

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:228 - 230]

Keywords: Echocardiography, Ectopic pregnancy, Heart failure, Levosimendan

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24118  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Takotsubo syndrome is a transient stunned myocardium that typically involves the apical and mid-ventricular segments. A variant, called Inverted Takotsubo, concerns the basal and mid-ventricular segments. Case summary: We present a ruptured ectopic pregnancy that was responsible for a catecholamine surge, which led to this stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Transthoracic echocardiography showed mid-basal segments akinesia and hypercontractility of the apical segments. Biology has shown mild elevated troponin and NT-pro-BNP levels which led to performing a coronary angiography that showed no angiographic stenosis. A left ventricle angiography evoked the diagnosis of inverted Takotsubo. The patient has received Levosimendan to allow progressive weaning of catecholamine inotropes. The clinical evolution was favorable. Echocardiography performed after 3 weeks, showed ad-integrum restitution of the left ventricular function. Discussion: Takotsubo syndrome should be evoked whenever a context of physical or psychological stress is present. We underline the usefulness of Levosimendan as a nonadrenergic inotrope in this particular context.



Lokhesh C Anbalagan, Atul Saroch

Acute-onset Breathlessness: An Unexpected Etiology?

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:231 - 234]

Keywords: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF), Critically ill adults, Lung primary

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Acute-onset breathlessness has multifactorial causes where early spotting of etiology assists in prompt treatment of these cases. Other than usual causes, an often-neglected cause, especially in adults, is non-asphyxiating foreign body aspiration. Here, we describe a case of a 40-year-old male who had aspirated an organic foreign body under alcohol intoxication and presented with symptoms of acute-onset breathlessness and severe hypoxia. Prompt diagnosis and bronchoscopy-guided removal result in a quick recovery of symptoms in the index patient.



Zakaria Kaidawala, Arun Shah, Rushi Desphande

Corona, Acute Ischemic Stroke, Malignant Cerebral Edema, and Hemo-adsorption: A Case Report

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:235 - 238]

Keywords: Acute ischemic stroke, Corona, COVID-19, Cytosorb, Hemoadsorption, Hemoperfusion, Malignant cerebral edema

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24116  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: COVID-19 infection can be associated with systemic hyperinflammation, hypercoagulable state, vasculitis, and cardiomyopathy leading to multiorgan failure. Use of extracorporeal blood purification has been shown to mitigate the cytokine storm, improving hemodynamic stability and pulmonary function. Case summary: We report a case of a young patient with malignant cerebral edema due to acute cerebrovascular accident, with COVID-19. He was taken up for life-saving decompression craniotomy amidst the cytokine storm and multiorgan failure, and was treated with steroids, antibiotics, and Cytosorb® therapy for the cytokine storm. IL-6 and PCT levels were reduced by 99.5 and 98.6%, respectively. Vasopressors were stopped on day 4 and successfully weaned off ventilator support by 2 weeks of tracheostomy. He was de-cannulated and discharged neurologically stable on day 32. Conclusion: Timely detection of COVID-19 and anti-inflammatory and hemo-adsorption measures may be helpful in modulating cytokine storm, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality.



Anju Kumari, Poonam Gupta, Himanshu Verma, Ajay Kumar, Preeti Thakur, Kavish Sharma

Colistin-induced Bartter-like Syndrome: Ponder before Treatment!

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:239 - 243]

Keywords: Bartter-like syndrome, Colistin, Critically ill patients

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24117  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Bartter-like syndrome (BLS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities which include metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia with normal kidney function. BLS is a very rare syndrome and can be induced by certain diseases, antibiotics, diuretics, and antineoplastic drugs. Colistin is a polymicrobial bactericidal drug and currently re-emerged as the only salvation therapy against multidrug resistant bacilli especially in critically ill patients at intensive care units. Only an anecdotal case report of colistin-induced Bartter-like syndrome has been reported. We here report a case series of four critically ill patients who were on treatment with colistin and presented with serious metabolic disturbances.



Rational Approach to Chatter in Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation to Limit Fluid Administration: An Algorithmic Description

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:244 - 245]

Keywords: Chatter, Drainage insufficiency, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24113  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Novel Use of Catheter Mount as an Alternative to T-piece

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:246 - 247]

Keywords: Catheter mount, Spontaneous breathing trial, T-piece, Weaning from mechanical ventilation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Catheter mounts with swivel connectors are used to attach the endotracheal tube to the ventilator circuit, dampening jerks and drags and increasing patient comfort. We suggest a unique application of catheter mount as T-piece for weaning, eliminating the need for a single inventory purchase and repurposing a previously used item for a new use, lowering the financial burden on patients. In our ICU, catheter mounts are being used as an alternative to T-piece for 30-minute weaning trials following successful SBT trials to evaluate patients’ response to Zero PEEP (ZEEP) and therefore the probable occurrence of alveolar derecruitment to decrease extubation failure.



Praneet Vashishtha, Nipun Gupta, Ravi Wadke, Priya Taank

Interplay between Myasthenia Gravis and Severe COVID-19 Infection: The Missing Links

[Year:2022] [Month:February] [Volume:26] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:248 - 249]

Keywords: COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, Intravenous immunoglobulin, Myasthenia gravis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23930  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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