Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2022 | August | Volume 26 | Issue 8

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Jitin Sharma

Heart Rate, Acidosis, Consciousness, Oxygenation, and Respiratory Rate: A Perfect Weaning Index or Just a New Kid on the Block

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:887 - 888]

Keywords: Difficult weaning, Heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation, and respiratory rate score, Weaning from mechanical ventilation, Weaning predictors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24290  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Successful weaning is when spontaneous breathing is sustained for more than 48 hours after extubation. Despite a plethora of individual and composite weaning indices being available, most indices have not found much clinical utility, and weaning continues to be largely based on clinical assessment. Heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation, and respiratory rate (HACOR) is a new score for prediction of failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in hypoxemic patients receiving NIV. The present study explores its utilization in weaning from invasive ventilation.



Inhaled Anesthetics for Sedation in ICU: Widening Horizons!

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:3] [Pages No:889 - 891]

Keywords: AnaConDa, Benzodiazepine, Inhaled sedation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24295  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Thymosin α1 for COVID-19: Look before You Leap!

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:892 - 893]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24297  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Seeing is Believing: The Import of Lung Ultrasound!

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:894 - 895]

Keywords: BLUE protocol, Lung ultrasound, Lung ultrasound score, Pneumonia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24291  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in India: Time for Collaborative Study?

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:896 - 897]

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Epidemiology, Pediatric

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24300  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


View Point

Viewpoint: Weak Scientific Basis for the Recommendation of Executive Summary of Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2021

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:898 - 899]

Keywords: Peripherally inserted vascular catheter, Septic shock, Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2021, Vasopressors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24277  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The Executive summary of Sepsis 2021 was published recently, which for the first time, recommended that in septic shock, the vasopressor infusion should be commenced through a peripherally inserted venous catheter (PiVC) for up to 6 hours. We discuss the scientific basis for such a recommendation regarding the safety of vasopressor infusion through a peripherally inserted vascular catheter or the accepted duration.


Original Article

Shreya Das Adhikari, Shwethapriya Rao

Utility of the One-time HACOR Score as a Predictor of Weaning Failure from Mechanical Ventilation: A Prospective Observational Study

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:900 - 905]

Keywords: Failed weaning, HACOR score, Successful weaning

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24280  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To determine the utility of the HACOR score in predicting weaning failure in resource-limited settings. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine a cut-off value of the HACOR score, sensitivity, and specificity to predict failed weaning. The secondary objective was to determine which out of five components of the score was significantly different between the successful weaning and the failed weaning groups. Introduction: Most weaning indices are either inaccurate or are dependent on complex ventilatory parameters, which are difficult to measure in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to determine the utility of the HACOR score consisting of heart rate, acidosis, consciousness level, oxygenation, and respiratory rate as a predictor of weaning in the intensive care unit. Materials and methods: It was a prospective observational study on 120 patients between 18 and 90 years. The HACOR score was evaluated at 30 minutes of spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). The total duration of SBT was 120 minutes. Results: Out of 120 patients, 83 (69.2%) had successful weaning, whereas 37 (30.8%) had weaning failure. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of the HACOR score in the successful weaning group was 2 (0–3) and 6 (5–8) in the failed weaning group (p-value <0.001). There was a significant difference in each of the five components of the HACOR score between the successful and failed weaning groups (p <0.05). HACOR score ≥5 predicted failed weaning, sensitivity 83.8%, specificity 96.4%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.950, and 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.907–0.993], p <0.001. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that HACOR score ≥5 is an independent predictor of weaning failure [p <0.001, 95% CI (1.9–4.2), adjusted odds ratio 2.82]. Conclusion: A HACOR score ≥5 is an excellent predictor of weaning failure. This score may be useful as a weaning strategy in the intensive care unit.


Original Article

Kushal Rajeev Kalvit, Tarun Kumar Sahu, Meshach M Dhas, Gautam Gondal, Swapna Charie, Anjana Shrivastava, for the INhaled SedaTion IN CriTically ill patients – (INSTINCT) study group

Safety and Feasibility of AnaConDa™ to Deliver Inhaled Isoflurane for Sedation in Patients Undergoing Elective Postoperative Mechanical Ventilation: A Prospective, Open-label, Interventional Trial (INSTINCT I Study)

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:7] [Pages No:906 - 912]

Keywords: Anesthesia conserving device, Delirium, Inhaled sedation, Mechanical ventilation, Richmond agitation sedation scale score

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24264  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Sedation is essential during invasive mechanical ventilation, and conventionally intravenous analgesic and sedative drugs are used. Sedation with inhaled anesthetics using anesthesia conserving device (ACD) is an alternative. There is no data on the safety and ease of use of AnaConDa™ from India. Materials and methods: After IEC approval and informed consent, we used AnaConDa™-S for Isoflurane sedation in 50 hemodynamically stable (need for <0.5 µg/kg/min of Noradrenaline infusion), ASA I and II patients aged 18–80 years, undergoing elective mechanical ventilation for up to 24 hours after elective oncosurgeries. Patients with mental obtundation (GCS <14), or if pregnant, were excluded. The primary outcome was time spent between RASS scores of -3 and -4, while secondary outcomes were incidence of delirium, technical problems with AnaConDa™, and adverse systemic effects of isoflurane. Bolus doses of isoflurane 0.2–0.5 mL were given if the Richmond agitation sedation scale (RASS) score was not achieved. Results: Fifty patients received isoflurane infusion for a median of 720 (IQR 630–900) minutes, and all remained in the target sedation range. Median time to awakening [19 (IQR, 5–85) minutes], to follow simple verbal commands [20 (IQR 5–180) minutes], and extubation after stopping the infusion of isoflurane was quick [100 (10–470) minutes]. All patients remained hemodynamically stable. None of the patients had delirium. Conclusion: Target sedation levels were achieved with initial boluses of isoflurane using AnaConDa™-S. Isoflurane sedation delivery using AnaConDa™-S is safe and feasible.


Original Article

Adarsh Shetty, Nirhali Sonali Chandrakant, Rahul Ashok Darnule, BG Manjunath, Prachee Sathe

A Double-blind Multicenter Two-arm Randomized Placebo-controlled Phase-III Clinical Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness and Safety of Thymosin α1 as an Add-on Treatment to Existing Standard of Care Treatment in Moderate-to-severe COVID-19 Patients

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:7] [Pages No:913 - 919]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019, Mortality, Thymosin α1

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24298  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: From an epidemic outbreak, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has quickly developed. Thymosin α1 (Tα1) has the ability to boost the T-cell numbers, support T-cell differentiation, maturation, and reduce cell apoptosis. In this study, we have investigated the efficacy and safety of Tα1 in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. Patients and methods: In this double-blind, multicenter, two-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical study, patients were randomized to receive either Tα1 or placebo in combination with standard of care (SOC). The data on all-cause mortality, clinical progression/deterioration, duration of hospital/intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and safety data were collected. The patients were telephonically followed up on Day 28. Results: A total of (n = 105) COVID-19 patients were included in the study, of which 40 and 65 were severe and moderate, respectively. Thymosin arm (11.1%) had a statistically lower death rate in comparison to the placebo arm (38.5%). A total of 67 adverse events were reported in 42 patients among 105 dosed patients during the study. Among them, 43 adverse events were of mild in nature, 16 adverse events were of moderate in nature, and 8 serious adverse events (death) occurred during the study. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that Tα1 can lower death rate in severe COVID-19 patients, reduce the load on hospitals by shortening the required number of days of hospitalization and help in abbreviating the requirement of oxygen support by positively impacting the recovery rate and time taken for recovery.


Original Article

Jonny Dhawan

Bedside Lung Ultrasound as an Independent Tool to Diagnose Pneumonia in Comparison to Chest X-ray: An Observational Prospective Study from Intensive Care Units

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:10] [Pages No:920 - 929]

Keywords: Bedside lung ultrasound, Chest X-ray, Computed tomography scan, Diagnosis, Pneumonia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24283  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Diagnosing pneumonia is challenging because of multiple differential diagnosis. Bedside lung ultrasound (BLUS) is a safe, portable, rapid and inexpensive new modality to diagnose pneumonia. This study was aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of BLUS vs chest X-ray (CXR) to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using computed tomography (CT) scans as the gold standard. Patients and methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in selected intensive care units (ICUs). Eligible 85 adult patients with symptoms suggestive of pneumonia as per 2007 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria, and 2D echocardiography were enrolled consecutively by using convenient sampling technique. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for SARS-associated coronavirus was sent with in 1 hour followed by BLUS and CXR within 24 hours of ICU admission. The final confirmation of CAP was done by a thoracic CT scan. Results: Bedside lung ultrasound vs CXR could detect 74 vs 58 cases out of 84 confirmed cases. Sensitivity and specificity of BLUS vs CXR was 88.1% vs 67.8% and 100% vs 0%, respectively. Moreover, LR+ and LR− for BLUS was found to be 0 and 0.12 in comparison to 0.68 and 0 for CXR. The area under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve for BLUS vs CXR was 0.94 (95% CI 0.0–1.0) with p = 0.13 and 0.66 (95% CI 0.12–1.0) with p = 0.58. There was a significant agreement between diagnostic accuracy of BLUS and CT scan [kappa value (κ) = 0.14, p = 0.009], whereas CXR could not establish its diagnostic efficiency (κ = −0.023, p = 0.493). Sonographic features of pneumonia were B-lines, shred, and hepatization signs. Conclusion: It is observed that BLUS showed higher sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy as compared to CXR to diagnose pneumonia.



Roqia D Ayad, Ashraf W Andraos, Khaled AE Taema, Ibraheem M Attia, Moamen Yehia

Infective Endocarditis as a Cause of Critical Illness, In-hospital Mortality, and Complications

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:930 - 934]

Keywords: Complications, Critical illness, Infective endocarditis, In-hospital mortality

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24276  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Critical illness due to infective endocarditis (IE) has high in-hospital mortality. Besides being a cause of sepsis, this disease has the potential nature to affect multiple organs. Patients and methods: Data for 84 patients managed at the critical care medicine unit at Cairo University for 7 years were surveyed for IE using modified Dukes criteria. Among the patient group with a verified diagnosis of IE, patient characteristics (age and comorbidities), the grade of diagnosis, the blood culture result, echocardiographic findings, minor diagnostic signs (fever, presence of prosthetic valves and pacemaker, vascular phenomena, immunologic phenomena) and clinical complications (heart failure, septic shock, neurologic complications renal failure) were studied regarding their association to in-hospital mortality. Incidence of clinical complications was compared to the control group with sepsis due to other causes. Results: The mortality rate in the IE group is 18.8%. Factors showing significant association to in-hospital mortality are; septic shock p = 0.01, neurological complications p = 0.025 (especially cerebral hemorrhage p = 0.025), indicated non-performed surgery p = 0.008, and presence of underlying heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), p = 0.002. Incidence of clinical complications showed no significant difference in IE patients and patients with other causes of sepsis except heart failure which showed significantly increased incidence in the IE group, p = 0.004. Conclusion: Septic shock, neurological complications, indicated nonperformed surgery, and presence of underlying HFrEF are in-hospital mortality risk factors in critically ill patients due to IE. In-hospital mortality and clinical complication incidence (except heart failure) are similar to other causes of sepsis.



Krithika Varshini, Vithiya Ganesan, Raja Sundaramurthy, T Rajendran

Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infections: Scenario in a Tertiary Care Center from South India

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:3] [Pages No:935 - 937]

Keywords: Infection control, Nosocomial infection, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24288  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a gram-negative non-fermenter has evolved from a colonizer to a significant pathogen over the last decade. It resides in various ecological niches both inside and outside the hospital settings. Infections due to S. maltophilia can be life-threatening, especially in immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia is intrinsically resistant to most of the antibiotics, which limits treatment options. There are several risk factors involved. The present study was done to assess the risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with S. maltophilia blood stream infections and non-blood stream infections.



Irena Šarc, Camilla Calandra, Savino Spadaro, Bushra Mina, Laura D Ciobanu, Gil Gonçalves, Vania Caldeira, Bruno Cabrita, Andreas Perren, Giuseppe Fiorentino, Tughan Utku, Edoardo Piervincenzi, Mohamad El-Khatib, Nilgün Alpay, Rodolfo Ferrari, Mohamed EA Abdelrahim, Haitham Saeed, Yasmin M Madney, Hadeer S Harb, Nicola Vargas, Hilmi Demirkiran, Pradipta Bhakta, Peter Papadakos, Manuel Á Gómez-Ríos, Alfredo Abad, Subrata K Singha

Role of Sedation and Analgesia during Noninvasive Ventilation: Systematic Review of Recent Evidence and Recommendations

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:11] [Pages No:938 - 948]

Keywords: Analgesia, Analgosedation, Discomfort, Noninvasive ventilation, Respiratory failure, Sedation, Sedoanalgesia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23950  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This systematic review aimed to investigate the drugs used and their potential effect on noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Background: NIV is used increasingly in acute respiratory failure (ARF). Sedation and analgesia are potentially beneficial in NIV, but they can have a deleterious impact. Proper guidelines to specifically address this issue and the recommendations for or against it are scarce in the literature. In the most recent guidelines published in 2017 by the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) relating to NIV use in patients having ARF, the well-defined recommendation on the selective use of sedation and analgesia is missing. Nevertheless, some national guidelines suggested using sedation for agitation. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library) from January 1999 to December 2019 were searched systematically for research articles related to sedation and analgosedation in NIV. A brief review of the existing literature related to sedation and analgesia was also done. Review results: Sixteen articles (five randomized trials) were analyzed. Other trials, guidelines, and reviews published over the last two decades were also discussed. The present review analysis suggests dexmedetomidine as the emerging sedative agent of choice based on the most recent trials because of better efficacy with an improved and predictable cardiorespiratory profile. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that sedation has a potentially beneficial role in patients at risk of NIV failure due to interface intolerance, anxiety, and pain. However, more randomized controlled trials are needed to comment on this issue and formulate strong evidence-based recommendations. Abbreviations: ACPE, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema; AECOPD, acute exacerbation of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AHRF, acute hypercapnic respiratory failure; ALI/ARDS, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute respiratory failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EAdi, electrical activity of the diaphragm; ERS/ATS, European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society; ETI, endotracheal intubation; ICU, intensive care unit; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; LOS, length of stay; NAVA, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist; NIV, noninvasive ventilation; PSV, pressure support ventilation; PVD, patient-ventilator dyssynchrony; RCT, randomized controlled trial.



Chandrakant G Pujari, AV Lalitha, Ananya Kavilapurapu

Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: Single-center Experience

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:7] [Pages No:949 - 955]

Keywords: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Mortality, Pediatric risk of mortality III score

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24285  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by dysregulated inflammation resulting in hypoxemia and respiratory failure and causes both morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To describe the clinical profile, outcome, and predictors of mortality in ARDS in children admitted to the Pediatric intensive care unit. Materials and methods: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in a 12-bed PICU involving children (1 month to 18 years) with ARDS as defined by Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) guidelines, over a period of 5 years (2016–2020). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory details at onset and during PICU stay were collected. Predictors of mortality were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Results: We identified 89 patients with ARDS. The median age at presentation was 76 months (12–124 months). The most common precipitating factor was pneumonia (66%). The majority of children (35.9%) had moderate ARDS. Overall mortality was 33% with more than half belonging to severe ARDS group (58%). On Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis, the mean time to death was shorter in the severe ARDS group as compared to other groups. Multiorgan dysfunction was present in 46 (51.6%) of the cases. Non-survivors had higher mean pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD2) on day 1. PRISM III at admission, worsening trends of ventilator and oxygenation parameters (OI, P/F, MAP, and PEEP) independently predicted mortality after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High PRISM score predicts poor outcome, and worsening trends of ventilator and oxygenation parameters (OI, P/F, MAP, and PEEP) are associated with mortality.



Inadvertent Vertebral Vein Cannulation: Anatomical Considerations and Practical Aspects

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:956 - 957]

Keywords: Anatomical landmarks, Central venous catheter malposition, Inadvertent vertebral vein cannulation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24281  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A routine vascular procedure, the central venous catheterization requires recognition of malposition to avoid its serious sequelae. This case report discusses the complications encountered following presumed right internal jugular vein cannulation in a trauma patient. Cervical spine imaging done as part of a trauma protocol revealed a catheter in the right vertebral vein. Inadvertently mispositioned catheter emphasizes the significance of ultrasound-guided central vein catheterization even if the cannulation is done using standard anatomical landmarks.



Vithiya Ganesan, Raja Sundaramurthy

Elizabethkingia meningoseptica Infections: A Case Series from a Tertiary Hospital in South Tamil Nadu

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:3] [Pages No:958 - 960]

Keywords: Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Empirical antibiotic therapy, Intensive care unit

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24292  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is an opportunistic pathogen increasingly reported as hospital-acquired infection. Here, we report a series of cases of eight patients with invasive E. meningoseptica infections over a period of 27 months in a tertiary teaching hospital from South India. Age range was 45 days to 84 years, median 66 years, with male preponderance. Associated risk factors included recent hospitalization with surgeries, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, mechanically ventilated, and central line. All isolates were susceptible to minocycline. Combination therapy with ciprofloxacin and piperacillin tazobactam was most common. Six recovered and two patients were lost to follow-up.



Jasmine Singh, Roosy Aulakh

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Induced Status Dystonicus in a Child with West Syndrome

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:961 - 962]

Keywords: Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Status dystonicus, West syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24289  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contraction causing repetitive twisting movements and abnormal postures. Status dystonicus (SD) is an enigmatic disease of cryptic etiology. We hereby report a child with West syndrome (WS) who went on to develop SD following intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. An 11-month-old male child presented with complaints of flexor spasms for 2 months. The diagnosis of WS was confirmed by electroencephalography (EEG), which showed hypsarrhythmia. Intramuscular ACTH was added, and oral trihexyphenidyl was started for dystonia. On day 7 of ACTH, the child developed frequent opisthotonic posturing. Management protocol for grade IV SD was initiated. Administration of N-terminal of ACTH in rat locus coeruleus has been shown to produce human dystonia-like movement and abnormal posturing.



Satyabrata Tripathy

COVID-19 Vaccine-associated Thrombosis (Disseminated Intravascular Thrombosis) with Rare Cutaneous Involvement

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:3] [Pages No:963 - 965]

Keywords: COVID-19, Disseminated intravascular thrombosis, Thrombosis, Vaccine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24282  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Many COVID-19 vaccines have been used on the population all over the world. Not much is known about the vaccines and their adverse effects. A middle-aged lady got fever, body ache, and cutaneous lesions suggestive of disseminated intravascular thrombosis (DIC) almost immediately after COVID vaccination with very high D-dimer level in blood. She was successfully managed with timely initiation of treatment with steroids, anticoagulation, and antibiotics.



Suvadeep Sen, Vaishali Lokhande

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Severe Pulmonary Forms of Leptospirosis: A Report of Two Cases

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:966 - 969]

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Leptospirosis, Tropical infections

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24286  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis is common. Severe pulmonary forms of leptospirosis (SPFL) carry high mortality. We report two cases of an otherwise healthy adult male from the western suburbs of India, admitted with severe pulmonary hemorrhage with extremely poor oxygenation. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) was used as the last-rescue life-saving measure. Both the patients showed good pulmonary recovery within 2 weeks. Despite having thrombocytopenia, we experienced lesser bleeding complications requiring transfusions during the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) period.



Jasmin Hundal, David Bowers, Naga Vaishnavi Gadela, Abhishek Jaiswal

Rare Case of Refractory Hypoxia and Severe Multiorgan Failure from Secondary Lymphohistiocytosis Successfully Bridged to Treatment with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:970 - 973]

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Multiorgan failure, T-cell lymphoma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24284  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an uncommon complication of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Non-specific findings that mimic other diseases make timely diagnosis and treatment challenging. We present a rare case of severe ARDS and multiorgan failure from secondary HLH due to peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Case presentation: A middle-aged female presented with dry cough and fever for three days. On presentation, the patient was febrile to 105°F and hypoxic to 88% on room air. Chest X-ray showed bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Laboratory investigations showed lymphopenia and elevated inflammatory markers. The viral panel, including coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), was negative. Her respiratory status progressively worsened, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS. Despite lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and the use of paralytic agents, the patient continued to remain hypoxic, necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The patient was started on antibiotics and high-dose steroid. Thereafter, she developed a leukemoid reaction, and the ferritin level started rising; raising suspicion for lymphophagocytosis. During this time, she also developed acute liver and kidney failure and required multiple vasopressors and renal replacement therapy. Eventually, a diagnosis of mature peripheral T-cell lymphoma was established. Subsequently, her respiratory status and multiorgan failure significantly improved, and ECMO was explanted after 2 weeks. She was started on etoposide and steroid, and eventually discharged after 6 weeks. Discussion: This is the first case describing a successful implementation of ECMO in an adult diagnosed with ARDS secondary to mature peripheral T-cell lymphoma; allowing for recovery of respiratory status, which was compromised during the initial cytokine storm and provided time to establish the diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment of secondary HLH mature due to peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and in the end, prevented a fatality. We believe that ECMO may be appropriately instituted in rapidly deteriorating patients with an unknown illness refractory to conventional therapy, to allow for end-organ recovery, to reach a diagnosis, and to administer appropriate therapy.



Bharat Paliwal, Anamika Purohit

Oxygen Cylinder Fire during the COVID-19 Pandemic

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:974 - 975]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019 infection, Disinfection, Fire, Intensive care unit, Oxygen

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24287  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the massive utilization of oxygen cylinders during the treatment of patients. This rapid turnover has necessitated their frequent replacements. Infection control measures have encouraged the use of alcohol-based sanitizers. Over-enthusiastic or inappropriate use of these solutions may increase the risk of fire. We report an unfortunate incident of accidental fire arising out from the integration of fuel, a source of ignition, and oxygen. We also discuss the proper practices to minimize such mishaps.



Priyankar K Datta

Trendelenburg in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Should We Do More than Proning?

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:976 - 977]

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Hypoxemia, Mechanical ventilation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24275  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Saiteja Kodamanchili

Author's Response to Trendelenburg Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Should We Do More than Proning?

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:978 - 979]

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Coronavirus disease-2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome, Pressure support

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24294  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Not the Virus but Treatment and Immune Response Cause SARS-CoV-2-associated Neuropathy

[Year:2022] [Month:August] [Volume:26] [Number:8] [Pages:1] [Pages No:980 - 980]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019, Nerves, Neurological, Neuropathy, SARS-CoV-2

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23849  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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