[Year:2023] [Month:August] [Volume:27] [Number:8] [Pages:11] [Pages No:552 - 562]
Background: Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are associated with high mortality. The present retrospective, multicenter study describes the predictors and outcomes of COVID-19 patients requiring ICU admission from COVID-19 Registry of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), India.
Materials and methods: Prospectively collected data from participating institutions were entered into the electronic National Clinical Registry of COVID-19. We enrolled patients aged >18 years with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission between March 2020 and August 2021. Exclusion criteria were negative in RT-PCR report, death within 24 hours of ICU admission, or incomplete data. Their demographic and laboratory variables, ICU severity indices, treatment strategies, and outcomes were analyzed.
Results: A total of 5,865 patients were enrolled. Overall mortality was 43.2%. Non-survivors were older (58.2 ± 15.4 vs 53.6 ± 14.7 years; p = 0.001), had multiple comorbidities (33.2% vs 29.5%, p = 0.001), had higher median D-dimer (1.56 vs 1.37, p = 0.015), higher CT severity index (16.8 ± 5.2 vs 13.5 ± 5.47, p = 0.001) and longer median hospital stay (10 vs 8 days, p = 0.001) and ICU stay (5 vs 4 days, p = 0.001), compared with survivors.
On multivariate analysis, high CRP (HR 1.008, 95% CI: 1.006–1.010, p = 0.001) and high D-dimer (HR 1.089, 95% CI: 1.065–1.113, p < 0.001) were associated with invasive mechanical ventilation while older age (HR 1.19, CI: 1.001–1.038, p = 0.039) and high D-dimer (HR-1.121, CI: 1.072–1.172, p = 0.001) were independently associated with mortality and while the use of prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (HR 0.647, CI: 0.527–0.794, p = 0.001) lowered mortality.
Conclusion: Among 5,865 COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU, mortality was 43.5%. High CRP and D-dimers were independently associated with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation while older age and high D-dimer were associated with higher mortality. The use of prophylactic LMWH independently reduced mortality.