Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2023 | September | Volume 27 | Issue 9

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EDITORIAL

Vasudha Singhal, Hemanshu Prabhakar

Readiness of the Stroke Treatment in India – Still an Uphill Task!

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:607 - 608]

Keywords: Acute Ischemic stroke, Intravenous thrombolytic therapy, Low resources settings

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24525  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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EDITORIAL

Nimisha Abdul Majeed

Decision Fatigue among Emergency Physicians: Reality or Myth

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:609 - 610]

Keywords: Burnout, Clinical decision making, Communication, Emergency department, Emergency physician, Fatigue, Mental health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24526  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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EDITORIAL

Srinivas Samavedam

Sepsis Induced Coagulopathy – Bringing Science to the Bedside

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:611 - 612]

Keywords: Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Rotational thromboelastometry, Sepsis, Sepsis induced coagulopathy, Thromboelastogram, Viscoelastic

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24537  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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EDITORIAL

Deven Juneja

Intrahospital Transport of Critically Ill Patients: Safety First

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:3] [Pages No:613 - 615]

Keywords: Critically ill patients, Intensive care units, Intrahospital transport

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24538  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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Original Article

Aviral Shah, Arundhati Diwan

Stumbling Blocks to Stroke Thrombolysis: An Indian Perspective

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:616 - 619]

Keywords: Acute ischemic stroke, Barriers, Intravenous thrombolytic therapy, Stroke thrombolysis, Tissue plasminogen activator, Window period

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24517  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and purpose: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Developing countries, however, still lag behind in providing timely thrombolytic therapy (TLT) to many eligible patients owing to various reasons. This study aims to identify such factors. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive observational study undertaken over a period of 18 months at a tertiary care teaching hospital and included 252 acute ischemic stroke patients of which 200 were not thrombolyzed. The reasons for nonthrombolysis were recorded and analyzed. Results: The study included 252 acute ischemic stroke patients of which only 20% were thrombolyzed. Of the 200 nonthrombolyzed patients, 55% arrived out of the window period while patient-related factors were the second biggest factor preventing thrombolysis. Hospital factors at 14% and financial constraints at 4.5% contributed significantly. Delayed consent emerged as an important factor making 6% of the delays. Conclusions: Stroke thrombolysis still faces various pre- and intrahospital barriers in India. There is an urgent need to improve infrastructure and organizational streamlining to enable eligible patients to receive prompt treatment.

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Original Article

Asma H Al-Arimi, Darpanarayan Hazra, Awatif K Alsarrai Al-Alawi

Impact of Fatigue on Emergency Physicians’ Decision-making for Computed Tomographic Scan Requests and Inpatient Referrals: An Observational Study from a Tertiary Care Medical Centre of the Sultanate of Oman

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:620 - 624]

Keywords: Computed tomography, Decision-making, Emergency medicine, Emergency physicians, Fatigue, Shift work schedule

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24520  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: Multiple factors contribute to decision fatigue experienced by emergency physicians (EPs). This study examines the association between decision fatigue and the frequency of computed tomographic (CT) scan requests and inpatient referrals among EPs. Methods: This retrospective database analysis was done for 3 months. Scans and inpatient referral requests were coded and analyzed to assess the impact of physician fatigue on decision-making. Subsequently, the outcomes were evaluated. Results: The majority of patients (n – 481; 51.1%) had a CT brain request. Among these requests, the morning shift (8:00 a.m.–3:00 p.m.) accounted for the highest number (n – 400; 42.5%), followed by the evening shift (3:00–11:00 p.m.) (n –345; 36.7%). Approximately one-third of the patients (n – 301; 31.9%) had positive CT scan findings. Statistical analysis comparing the first and the second halves of each shift did not reveal significant variations in the percentage of negative CT results (p-value: 0.093). Inpatient referral was necessary for over half of the patients (n – 1048; 52.7%), and the majority of these referrals (n – 778; 74.2%) were deemed necessary for treatment under various surgical or medical specialties. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of negative inpatient referrals between the first and the second halves of the afternoon shift (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: Fatigue among EPs was observed, leading to more frequent consultations without inpatient admission during the latter half of the afternoon shift. However, the study found no significant impact of decision fatigue on CT scan decision-making.

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Original Article

Priyanka Mohapatra, Arvind Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Mumtaz Hussain, Swati Singh

The Effect of Sepsis and Septic Shock on the Viscoelastic Properties of Clot Quality and Mass Using Thromboelastometry: A Prospective Observational Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:10] [Pages No:625 - 634]

Keywords: Biomarkers, Coagulation tests, Coagulopathy, fibrinolysis, Hypercoagulable state, Observational studies as topic, Sepsis, Septic shock, Severity, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24539  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Sepsis is associated with wide variable coagulation abnormalities. Thromboelastography (TEG) effectively measures the viscoelstic properties of the clots. This study aims to illustrate the viscoelastic properties of clot quality and mass in sepsis and septic shock patients using TEG, as an effective tool over standard coagulation tests. Materials and methods: A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted. 50 patients each meeting the criteria for sepsis and septic shock, and a healthy group of 30 patients were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained and analyzed for standard coagulation tests, platelet count, fibrinogen, and TEG study. Results: A total of 130 patients were included. Septic shock patients had a higher sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure score. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were increased significantly as compared to the sepsis and control groups. TEG markers such as alpha angle, and maximum amplitude (MA) were significantly prolonged while reaction time (R time), was significantly shortened in the sepsis group as compared to the healthy group, suggestive of a hypercoagulable state in sepsis patients. While in septic shock patients, MA and Lysis Index 30 (LY 30) were significantly prolonged and, R time was significantly shortened compared to all other groups. Even though LY30 in sepsis patients was found to be within the normal range (p < 0.001), 18% of patients had prolonged LY30 indicating a hypercoagulable state with impaired fibrinolysis. Conclusion: Thromboelastography, as a point-of-care test combined with conventional coagulation tests can provide additional, clinically relevant information on coagulopathy, and outcome, and thus help guide treatment modality in sepsis and septic shock-induced coagulopathy.

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Original Article

Kapil G Zirpe, Anand M Tiwari, Atul P Kulkarni, Subhal B Dixit, Manish Munjal, Shrinivas Samveddam, Yogendra P Sing, Swarna Deepak Kuragayala, Shweta Ram Chandankhede, Bijay Agarwala, Saurabh Jain, Swagat Pattajoshi, Mahesha Padyanya, Anil Kumar, Ziyokav Joshi, Mrinal Sircar, Sudhir Khunteta, Rajesh Pande, Rajesh Mishra

Adverse Events during Intrahospital Transport of Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter, Prospective, Observational Study (I-TOUCH Study)

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:635 - 641]

Keywords: Adverse events, Critically ill, Intrahospital transport, Patient safety

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24530  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Critically ill patients are frequently transported to various locations within the hospital for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, which increases the risk of adverse events (AEs). This multicenter prospective observational study was undertaken to determine the incidence of AEs related to intrahospital transport, their severity, and their effects on patient outcomes. Patients and methods: We included consecutive unstable critically ill patients requiring intrahospital transport, across 15 Indian tertiary care centers over 5 months (October 11, 2022–February 20, 2023). Apart from the demographics and severity of illness, data related to transport itself, such as indications and destination, incidence of AEs, their category and treatment required, and patient outcomes, were recorded in a standard form. Results: Eight hundred and ninety-three patients were transported on 1065 occasions out of the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score of the patients was 15.38 (±7.35). One hundred and two AEs occurred, wherein cardiovascular instability was the most common occurrence (31, 30.4%). Two patients had cardiac arrest immediately after transport. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II [odds ratio (OR): 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) – 1.00–1.05, p = 0.04], emergent transport (OR: 5.11, 95% CI – 3.32–7.88, p = 0.00), and team composition (OR: 5.34, 95% CI – 1.63–17.5, p = 0.00) during transport were found to be independent predictors of AEs. Conclusions: We found a high incidence of AEs during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients. These events were more common during emergent transports and when the patients were transported by doctors. Transport by itself was not related to ICU mortality. We feel that stabilization of the patients before transport and adherence to a standardized protocol may help in minimizing the AEs, thereby enhancing patient safety.

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Original Article

Smriti Parihar, Rajni Sharma, Sulika V Kinimi, Sidhya Choudhary

An Observational Study from Northern India to Evaluate Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection in Medical Intensive Care Unit at a Tertiary Care Centre

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:642 - 646]

Keywords: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection, Healthcare-associated infection, Medical intensive care unit, Urinary tract infection

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24519  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Healthcare-associated infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a leading infection in ICU settings. This study aims to evaluate the patient and catheter-related factors contributing to the urinary tract infection as well as implementing the preventive measures ultimately curbing down the burden of healthcare-associated infections. Material and methods: This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in Department of Microbiology, from October 2020 to September 2021. A total of 150 patients admitted to Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) with the indwelling urinary catheter were included. Urine samples were collected with proper aseptic precautions and processed within 2 hours of collection. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolated pathogens was done as per CLSI guidelines 2019. Results: In this study, the CAUTI rate was 9.4 per 1000 urinary catheter days, while the overall magnitude was 14.67%. It was predominantly reported in 51–70-years age group (34%), and females (63.63%) outnumbered males (36.36%), with Escherichia coli being the commonest pathogen. The highest incidence was reported in the 3rd week of catheterization with diabetes being a predominant risk factor (17.24%). Conclusion: This study provides baseline data on CAUTI rate, pathogens isolated, and risk factors at our institute. The overall goal is to identify, educate, and implement best-practice measures for prevention and curbing down the incidence rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

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Original Article

Hema Goyal, Ankush Singhal, Molly Joseph

Utility of VCS Parameters as a Cost-effective and Early Marker of Sepsis: A Hospital-based Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:647 - 650]

Keywords: Mean neutrophil volume, Mean monocyte volume sepsis, Volume, conductivity, scatter

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24523  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition. Nowadays, hospitals rely on laboratory parameters like CRP and procalcitonin to detect sepsis. There is a need to evaluate and validate more accurate and early predictors of sepsis in critically ill patients. We analyzed volume, conductivity, and scatter (VCS) parameters of leukocytes in sepsis patients and compared them with the control group with no illness. Materials and methods: It was a prospective case-control study. A total of 80 patients were studied with 40 sepsis cases and 40 controls. Peripheral smear examination was done in all the cases. Other parameters, such as WBC count, neutrophil%, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), – High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), procalcitonin, and blood cultures were analyzed. We took the data of the patients from medical records and correlated it with other tests. Complete blood picture reports were generated by the Beckman Coulter LH series (LH 750 and 780). VCS parameters for neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were compared between both groups. The results were analyzed using SPSS software (16.0 version) Results: The age group was 20–85 years with male predominance. The mean neutrophil volume (MNV) and mean monocyte volume (MMV) were higher in the sepsis group when compared with the control group. The mean neutrophil conductivity and scatter was lower in the sepsis group and comparatively higher in the control group but it was insignificant. The mean neutrophil volume values were higher in the sepsis group even with low total leukocyte count (TLC) when the patient had sepsis. There is no change in the mean lymphocyte VCS parameter and mean monocyte conductivity, scatter in both the groups. Conclusion: The mean neutrophil volume and MMV are found to be good sensitive markers in the prediction of sepsis. Even when TLC is on the lower side in patients with sepsis, these parameters predict sepsis accurately. This helps clinicians to assess sepsis in patients at an early stage and has an important practical implication.

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Original Article

V.K. Sureshkumar, Harikrishnanan, Jayakumar Menon, Ragitha, Manju Jacob, Shamim Kunhu

Prevalence of Post-extubation Airway Penetration and Aspiration Among Critically Ill Patients Assessed by An Eight-point Penetration Aspiration Scale Using Flexible Endoscopy – A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:651 - 654]

Keywords: Airway penetration, Aspiration, Critically ill, Fiber optic endoscopic swallow study

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24518  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Prolonged endotracheal intubation was found to be a risk factor for pulmonary aspiration following the extubation. In this study, we have tried to analyze the prevalence of airway penetration and aspiration among mechanically ventilated patient who received mechanical ventilation for a period of 48 hours or more. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done among non-neurologic critically ill patients who had an endotracheal tube for more than 48 hours and who got extubated subsequently. Such patients were taken for a fiber optic endoscopic swallow study after the initial assessment by a speech pathologist. Airway penetration and aspiration was assessed by an eight-point penetration aspiration scale after giving a test feed. Results: Data of 99 patients were analyzed. Mean duration of intubation was 5.9 days. 1% of the patients had aspiration and 20% of the patients had varying degrees of penetration. Duration of endotracheal intubation, age, sex, co-morbidities, admission diagnosis, and size of the endotracheal tube were found to have no association with penetration and aspiration. Conclusions: Prevalence of post-extubation aspiration was low among non-neurologic critically ill patients on short-term ventilation. Duration of endotracheal intubation, age, sex, co-morbidities, and endotracheal tube size were not found to be significantly associated with the development of airway penetration. Key message: Contrary to previous studies, this study has shown that among non-neurologic critically ill patients who had an endotracheal tube for a shorter period before extubation, the prevalence of airway penetration and aspiration was low when assessed by an eight-point penetration aspiration scale using flexible fiber optic endoscopy. Hence, in such a cohort of patients, a routine swallowing evaluation by flexible endoscopy is not recommended.

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Original Article

Surendran Rajendran, Anil Tarigopula, Suresh Kumar D, P Senthur Nambi, V Ramasubramanian

Xpert Carba-R Assay on Flagged Blood Culture Samples: Clinical Utility in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Bacteremia Caused by Enterobacteriaceae

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:655 - 662]

Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship, Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenemase detection, Gram negative resistance, Novel diagnostics for antimicrobial resistance, Rapid molecular diagnostics, Xpert Carba-R assay

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24533  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction and background: Rapid molecular diagnostics to predict carbapenem resistance well before the availability of routine drug sensitivity testing (DST) can serve as an antimicrobial stewardship tool in the context of high rates of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Materials and methods: A retrospective observational study of patients more than 18 years of age on whom Xpert Carba-R (FDA approved for rectal swab specimen) was done on gram-negative bacteria (GNB) flagged blood culture samples, in an Indian intensive care unit between January 2015 and November 2018. We analyzed the performance of Xpert Carba-R in comparison with routine DST. Results: A total of 164 GNBs were isolated from 160 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were the predominant isolates. Carba-R was positive in 35.36% of samples and 45.34% were carbapenem-resistant (CR) on routine DST. The distribution of the CR gene was: Oxacillinase (OXA) (50%), NDM (32.7%) followed by OXA and NDM co-expression (15.51%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Carba-R were 90.74, 93.15, 13.25, 0.10, 83.58 and 96.31% for Enterobacteriaceae. The median time to obtain the Carba-R report was 30 hours 34 minutes vs 74 hours and 20 minutes for routine DST. Based on the Carba-R report, 9.72% of patients had escalation and 27.08% had de-escalation of antibiotics. Conclusion: Xpert Carba-R serves as a rapid diagnostic tool for predicting carbapenem resistance in intensive care unit patients with bacteremia caused by Enterobacteriaceae.

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Original Article

Sampada A Patwardhan, Rasika S Joshi, Shweta P Panchakshari, Tejashree Rane, Amrita P Prayag

Enzyme Patterns and Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients with Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii (CRAB) Bacteremia: Real World Evidence from a Tertiary Center in India

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:663 - 668]

Keywords: Acinetobacter Baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii carbapenem, Bacteremia, Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Polymyxin

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24534  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: In the Indian setting, antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii is a considerable problem, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). Due to the limited data, clinicians are left with very few choices except polymyxins for treating serious infections caused by A. baumannii. There is sparse data regarding the local mechanisms of resistance. Given the current therapeutic challenges, it is critical to know the local enzymatic patterns and antibiograms. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 50 episodes of bacteremia caused by CRAB. We analyzed the enzyme patterns and the susceptibility rates to various antibiotics. Results: The resistance rates for amikacin, tigecycline, minocycline, and fluoroquinolones were 88, 82, 50, and 88% respectively. OXA-23 was the most commonly isolated enzyme (86% of the isolates produced OXA-23) followed by OXA-51 and NDM. The overall mortality was high (58%). On univariate analysis, pneumonia, and higher Pitt's bacteremia score were significantly associated with mortality (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001 respectively). Of the total patients who received combination therapy, a majority (58%) received polymyxin plus meropenem. Combination therapy using polymyxins as a backbone was not associated with reduced mortality (p = 0.1). Conclusion: A. baumannii is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as shown in our study. The rates of resistance for aminoglycosides were very high, and minocycline showed better susceptibility rates in comparison with tigecycline. In our study, OXA-23 and NDM remained the most important enzymes. The routine use of the combination of polymyxin and meropenem may not offer a significant advantage over monotherapy.

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Original Article

Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi, Akriti Bajracharya, Batsalya Arjyal, Dikshya Devkota

Can Use of Intravenous Methylene Blue Improve the Hemodynamics and Outcome of the Patients with Refractory Septic Shock? An Observational Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:669 - 674]

Keywords: Hemodynamics, Methylene blue, Refractory shock, Septic shock, Vasoplegia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24535  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Refractory shock, which fails to respond to conventional vasopressor therapy, is a common complication of sepsis. Methylene blue has emerged as a potential adjunctive treatment option for reversing refractory shock in sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravenous methylene blue infusion on hemodynamic improvement and mortality in patients with refractory shock. Methodology: This was an observational prospective study for the duration of six months conducted at intensive care a medical college and teaching hospital including 76 patients with a diagnosis of septic shock requiring vasopressor therapy. Intravenous (IV) methylene blue was infused as bolus dose with 2 mg/kg dose in 20 minutes and its response to mean arterial blood pressure, decrease in vasopressor therapy, lactate level, and urine output was recorded in next 2 hours. Patients with improvement in mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 10% or decrease in vasopressor therapy in next 2 hours were leveled as responder. The length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality were compared between responder and non-responder. Results: A total of 76 patients with refractory shock were included in the study. With the use of IV methylene blue, 41 (53.9%) patients showed significant improvement in MAP within 2 hours (70.17 ± 8.30 vs 64.28 ± 11.84, p = 0.005). Responders were 4.019 times more likely to have vasopressor-free time within 24 hours (18.4% vs 5.3%, p = 0.020, odds ratio 4.019, 95% confidence interval, 1.180–13.682). However, there was no significant difference in terms of mortality, length of ICU stay, ventilator free days, and incidence of AKI. In the responder group, there was a significant increase in the MAP and decrease in vasopressor requirement pre- and post-infusion of methylene blue (p < 0.05). Responder had shorter vasopressor-free days as compared with non-responder (5.34 vs 6.79, p = 0.008) while the mean survival time was longer with responders (21.97 vs 15.93 days, p = 0.024). Conclusion: The use of IV methylene blue in refractory shock as an adjuvant therapy significantly improved the mean arterial blood pressure and decreased the requirement of vasopressor therapy as well as improvement in the survival time. However, there was no change in the mortality, length of ICU stay, ventilator-free days, or incidence of AKI in the patients

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Ramkumar Mukundarajan, Kapil Dev Soni, Anjan Trikha

Prophylactic Melatonin for Delirium in Intensive Care Unit: An updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:11] [Pages No:675 - 685]

Keywords: Intensive care delirium, Melatonergics, Melatonin, Prophylactic therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24529  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Delirium, being a common disorder among critically ill patients, has a reported incidence ranging 45–83% in the intensive care unit (ICU) population. The prophylactic use of melatonin and melatonergics has been shown to have a positive effect in reducing the incidence of delirium in many clinical trials. Our study was thus proposed to find out the role of melatonin on the incidence and severity of ICU delirium, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), requirement, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU mortality. Methodology: A systematic search of various databases was performed to find out the trials which compare melatonin with a placebo or standard therapy for delirium prevention with the results conveyed as mean differences (MDs) or risk ratios. The statistical software, Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.4), was used for data synthesis. Results: Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Prophylactic administration of melatonin or ramelteon was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of delirium (odds ratio [OR] 0.63; confidence interval [CI]: 0.60, 1.32; p = 0.22), the severity of delirium (MD: 0.22; 95% CI: From −1.36 to 1.81; p = 0.78), ICU LOS (MD: 0.05; 95% CI: From −0.65 to 0.75; p = 0.89), hospital LOS (MD: −1.46; 95% CI: From −4.50 to −1.59; p = 0.35), need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.38−1.44; p = 0.37), and ICU mortality (MD: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.56; 1.11; p = 0.62). However, a significant reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation (MD: −0.85; 95% CI: From −1.64 to −0.06; p = 0.03) was found. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that melatonin when given prophylactically has no significant role in reducing the incidence and severity of delirium, ICU and hospital LOS, need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU mortality. Further studies are warranted.

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LETTER TO EDITOR

Aritra Goswami, Dipasri Bhattacharya, Mohanchandra Mandal, Antonio M Esquinas

Is the mNutric Score, the Only Independent Risk Factor for Abdominal Muscle Thickness Influencing Weaning?

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:686 - 687]

Keywords: Lung ultrasound, Mechanical ventilation, Modified nutritional risk in critically ill score, Pharmaconutrient therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24527  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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LETTER TO EDITOR

VK Sashindran

Minoxidil Poisoning: A Case of Refractory Shock with Remarkable ECG Changes

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:688 - 689]

Keywords: Electrocardiogram change, Minoxidil poisoning, Refractory shock

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24521  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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LETTER TO EDITOR

Tapesh Bansal

Is It Polymyositis

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:690 - 691]

Keywords: Critical illness myopathy, Pregnancy complications, Sepsis and Intensive care unit

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24522  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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LETTER TO EDITOR

Vishwas Parampalli

Author's Response to Letter to the Editor “Is the mNUTRIC Score the Only Independent Risk Factor for Abdominal Muscle Thickness Influencing Weaning?”

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:27] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:692 - 693]

Keywords: Abdominal expiratory muscles, Internal oblique muscle, Nutritional risk in the critically ill score, Weaning

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24532  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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