Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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2024 | January | Volume 28 | Issue 1

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EDITORIAL

Nagarajan Ramakrishnan

Teleradiology: Geography is now History!

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

Keywords: Telehealth, Tele-ICU, Teleradiology

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24625  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

375

EDITORIAL

Sachin Gupta, Deeksha Singh Tomar

Acute Kidney Injury and ECMO: Two Sides of the Same Coin

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:3 - 4]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Continuous renal replacement therapy, Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24627  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

397

EDITORIAL

Akshaykumar Amarchand Chhallani

Is SLED Efficient in Sepsis Associated Acute Kidney Injury: Hope but Hold!!

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:5 - 7]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Continuous renal replacement therapy, Sustained low-efficiency dialysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24629  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

496

EDITORIAL

Ajith Kumar AK

Endotracheal Cuff-pressure Monitoring in ICU: A Standard of Care Yet to be Standardized, and Often Neglected

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:8 - 10]

Keywords: Endotracheal cuff-pressure monitoring, ICU, Standard of care

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24624  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

632

EDITORIAL

Mohit Kharbanda

Aiming for a Better Tomorrow

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:11 - 12]

Keywords: Biopesticide, Imidacloprid, Insecticide, Insecticide alternatives, Insecticide mortality, Insecticide poisoning, Neonicotinoid

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24628  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

267

EDITORIAL

Narayanan Parameswaran

Transplanting the Liver for a New Life: Can the Kidney Throw in a Spanner?

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:13 - 14]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Acute liver failure, Chronic kidney disease, Liver transplantation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24630  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

318

COMMENTARY

Mahesh Radhakrishnan Menon

Ethics and Medicolegal Aspects of Withdrawal of Treatment in Critical Care Patients without Advanced Directives in India: Who will Guard the Guardians Themselves?

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:15 - 17]

Keywords: End-of-life care foregoing of life support withdrawal and withholding ethics, Law, Terminally ill patient

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24600  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The Supreme Court (SC) verdict of 2023 has been welcomed by the medical community in India by those who treat patients with terminal or advanced illnesses. The earlier verdict of the apex court in 2018 was ground-breaking in allowing for advanced directives (ADs) by patients in terms of their preferences at the end of life. However, it was an impractical and lengthy process in the Indian context. The recent verdict has simplified the process of withdrawal of life support, making it more practical. The authority to withdraw life support in dying patients is now also with the treating physician, the hospital, the primary medical board, and the secondary board. This article examines ethical issues related to the specifics of the judgment with respect to those who do not have ADs in India. The present article emphasizes the need for self-regulation, credentialing, and continuing medical education in critical care and palliative medicine. In the absence of these, who will guard the guardians?

608

COMMENTARY

Jigeeshu Vasishtha Divatia

Skin Mottling in Dark-skinned Indian Patients with Severe Septic Shock: A Window to the Circulation or a Closed Door?

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:18 - 19]

Keywords: Dark-skin color, Mortality, Peripheral tissue perfusion, Septic shock, Skin mottling

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24633  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Skin mottling has been found to be useful as a marker of peripheral hypoperfusion in shock in studies performed on fair-skinned patients. Whether skin mottling may be less apparent in dark-skinned patients, thus limiting its value in this patient population has not been studied. Jog et al. have performed an elegant study addressing this question, which is important and especially relevant to the Indian situation. They found that mottling is not easily visible in dark-skinned Indian patients, and when it becomes apparent, it is associated with a very high mortality. This study also throws up some areas for future research, including interobserver variability in the detection of mottling, and the hemodynamic and microcirculatory parameters associated with the appearance of mottling. Based on this study, the utility of skin mottling as a tool to guide hemodynamic management in severe septic shock in dark-skinned Indian patients is questionable.

340

Original Article

Pallavi Rao, Neetika Mathur, Arjun Kalyanpur

Utilization of Teleradiology by Intensive Care Units: A Cohort Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:20 - 25]

Keywords: Healthcare, Intensive care units, Radiologist, Teleradiology, Turnaround time

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24593  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and background: Imaging is indispensable to the diagnostic and treatment process. By facilitating access to rapid timely image interpretation, teleradiology plays a prominent role in improving access, quality of critical care, and management of the patients in intensive care units (ICU). The aim of the study is to investigate the role of teleradiology in ICU patient care and management. Materials and methods: In our study, a total of 22,081 studies of a cohort of 14,900 patients which had been transmitted from intensive care units of 80 hospitals located across the United States of America through a teleradiology reporting workflow, were interpreted by the American Board Certified Radiologists empanelled by a teleradiology service provider, located in India. Results: Among all modalities, the highest percentage of studies performed were computed tomography scan (47%) followed by radiographs (37.22%). Out of 22,081 cases under the study, 16,582 cases were reported during nighttime with a mean turnaround time (TAT) of 46.66 minutes 95% CI (46.27–47.04) while 5,499 cases were reported during daytime with a mean TAT of 44.66 minutes 95% CI (45.40–43.92). Conclusion: Setting up teleradiology service connectivity with a teleradiology service provider located in India, providing high-quality diagnostic interpretations and lower turnaround time with the ICUs in the US hospitals reduces the interval to intervention time and leads to efficient patient care management. Moreover, it also provides time advantage for US hospitals when on-site radiologists at night are unable to provide immediate coverage. Clinical significance: The ICU teleradiology service model designed in the study would greatly help overcome the shortfall of radiologists in the hospitals, provide better patient management and care by quality reporting in short turnaround time, not only during daytime but also in the night hours or on holidays when on-site radiologists are unable to provide immediate coverage.

697

Original Article

Aswin Surjit, Bipi Prasannan, Jobin Abraham, Anuroop Balagopal, Vavullipathy Narayanan Unni

Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Retrospective Cohort Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:26 - 29]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Continuous renal replacement therapy, Cohort study, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Renal replacement therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24612  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of extracorporeal therapy to support oxygenation of patients with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. Studies have shown that acute kidney injury (AKI) can worsen the outcome in these patients. This study aims to assess the incidence and outcome of AKI in patients on ECMO support. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 64 patients who underwent ECMO for more than 24 hours. Patients who died within 48 hours of initiation of ECMO and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis were excluded. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed and categorized according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Results: Of the 64 patients studied, 38 patients (59.38%) developed AKI and 17 patients (44.73%) among them developed AKI within 24 hours of initiation of ECMO. Age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE-II) score, hypertension, use of nephrotoxic agents, inotropic support, and poor cardiac function were the risk factors associated with the development of AKI. Diabetes mellitus, type of ECMO used, and duration of ECMO were not found to be risk factors for AKI. Renal replacement therapy was initiated in 31 patients (81.58%). The overall mortality in the whole group was 67.19%, while it was 81.58% among the patients with AKI. Conclusion: Acute kidney injury was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality in patients on ECMO. Early identification of the risk factors for AKI and management may help to improve the survival rate. Clinical significance: The occurrence of AKI among patients on ECMO support increases the risk of mortality significantly. Hence, measures to prevent AKI, as well as early detection and appropriate management of AKI, would improve patient outcomes.

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Original Article

Abdalla Kamal Abdalla Taha, Mazin Mohammed Taha Shigidi, Nazik Mahmoud Abdulfatah, Rajabia Khidir Alsayed

The Use of Sustained Low-efficiency Dialysis in the Treatment of Sepsis-associated Acute Kidney Injury in a Low-income Country: A Prospective Cohort Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:30 - 35]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Dialysis, Intensive care unit, Prospective cohort, Sepsis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24595  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Limited data are available regarding the management and outcomes of patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) requiring dialysis in Sudan. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a highly favored treatment modality in such patients. However, it stays unavailable and expensive treatment in most low-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the use of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in the treatment of hemodynamically unstable patients with SA-AKI admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: A prospective cohort was conducted in Baraha Medical City, Khartoum, Sudan. Patients above 18 years of age, who were admitted to the ICU between January and September 2020 with SA-AKI, and required SLED or CRRT were enrolled. These were followed up till death or discharge from the ICU. They were observed regarding their dialysis tolerance, rate of renal recovery, ICU mortality, and cost of therapy. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Results: Fifty-three adults were enrolled. Their mean age was 62 ± 11 years, and 56.6% were males. Thirty-one patients (58.5%) received SLED and 22 (41.5%) underwent CRRT. Patients in the two groups were age and sex matched and showed no significant differences in their comorbid conditions, source of sepsis, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and their indications for dialysis (p > 0.05). Patients treated with SLED showed similar dialysis tolerance, rate of renal recovery, length of ICU admission, and risk of death compared to those treated with CRRT (p > 0.05). Moreover, SLED treatments were less expensive than CRRT, and the costs of ICU admission among the SLED group were significantly less (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows that SLED is safe and effective. It is readily available and can be routinely performed in the treatment of hemodynamically unstable patients with SA-AKI at a significantly lower cost.

688

Original Article

Oendrila Roy, Sugata Dasgupta, Atanu Chandra, Puspendu Biswas, Arpita Choudhury, Shrestha Ghosh, Prithvijit Chatterjee

Relationship of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressures with Changes in Body Positions of Critically Ill Patients on Mechanical Ventilation: An Observational Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:36 - 40]

Keywords: Body position change, Critically ill patient, Endotracheal tube cuff pressure, Mechanical ventilation, Tracheal perfusion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24622  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and background: Endotracheal tube cuff pressure (ETCP) is an important factor to determine the development of complications associated with invasive mechanical ventilation. To avoid preventable complications arising out of immobilization, frequent changes in body positioning are necessary. Such variations in body position can affect ETCP in critically ill patients who are on mechanical ventilation. So, our study aimed to assess the effect of changes in body position on ETCP in patients who are on mechanical ventilation. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study included 31 critically ill intubated patients. Each study subject was first placed in a neutral starting position with a 30° head elevation. Then, they were subjected to a sequential change in body position based on the 16 most used positions as part of the critical care unit's (CCUs) daily routine. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure was measured after each position change. Data were analyzed using standard statistical tests. Results: Statistically significant difference in ETCP was observed during anteflexion of neck, hyperextension of neck, left lateral flexion of neck, right lateral flexion of neck, left lateral rotation of neck, right lateral rotation of neck, 10o recumbent position, supine position, Trendelenburg position, and right lateral 30° and 45° positions. Maximum increase in ETCP was seen during anteflexion of neck (31 ± 4.5; 22–42 cm H2O). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates significant deviations in ETCP from the recommended range following changes in the body position of mechanically ventilated patients, highlighting the need for the measurement of ETCP after each position change and maintenance of the same within the target range.

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Original Article

Mesiya Aydin, Tuba Yilmaz Bulut, İlknur Aydin Avci

Adaptation of Caregivers of Individuals on Mechanical Ventilation to Caregiving Role

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:41 - 47]

Keywords: Adaptation, Care, Home care, Home healthcare services

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24596  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the adaptation of caregivers of individuals on mechanical ventilation (MV) at home to their caregiver role. Study design: The phenomenological research method, one of the qualitative research methods, was employed in the study. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 21 individuals who agreed to participate in the research. Necessary legal permissions were obtained to conduct the study. Results: The data were analyzed according to the Roy adaptation model (RAM). Accordingly, the domains of the RAM were expressed with the following themes: Physiologic domain: The effects of care on the caregiver (reluctance toward self-care, psychological fatigue, insomnia, and limitation of social life); Self-concept domain: Supportive situations (trust in God and spiritual practices) and non-supportive situations (fear of losing and self-blame); Role-function domain: Adaptation of the caregiver role (thinking no one else can give similar care) and maladaptation of the caregiver role (fear of failing to cope with suddenly emerging situations, failing to fulfill roles and responsibilities, and economic inadequacy); Interdependence domain: Receiving support (support of healthcare professionals and support of family members) and lack of support (inadequacy of health services and loneliness). Conclusion: It was concluded that individuals who provided care for patients on MV experienced many difficulties and that these difficulties increased their care burden and made it difficult to adapt to their caregiving roles.

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Original Article

Surender Kumar, Bishnupati Singh, Amit Vasant Mahuli, Sanjay Kumar, Awanindra Kumar Jha

Assessment of Nursing Staff's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Oral Hygiene Care in Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:48 - 57]

Keywords: Critically ill, Intensive care unit, Nurses knowledge, Oral care, Oral hygiene, Ventilator-associated pneumonia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24601  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Oral care is one of the fundamental nursing care procedures used to decrease oral colonization, dental plaque, respiratory infections, patient stay, and cost. The importance of good oral hygiene for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) is well recognized, however, the most effective way to achieve good oral care in the ICU is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of nursing professionals regarding oral healthcare in ICUs among various medical institutes across India. Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based multicentric cross-sectional survey was conducted among registered nursing professionals employed at ICUs of three government tertiary healthcare centers (THC) of India: THC-I, THC-II, and THC-III located in the eastern and northern parts of India between February 2022 and July 2022. Results: A total of 150 nurses completed the questionnaire form (response rate: 62.5%) comprised of 49 (32.7%) males and 101 (67.3%) females with a mean age of 35.69 ± 7.7 years. Nursing officers’ knowledge surpassed that of staff nurses regarding the duration of toothbrushing (p = 0.033). Among interinstitutional comparisons, THC-I nurses showed the greatest knowledge regarding the duration of toothbrushing and the mechanism of preventing saliva accumulation to reduce microbial growth (p = 0.013 and p = 0.003, respectively). Based on total work experience, participants were segregated into three groups: Group I (<7 years), group II (7.1–13.9 years), and group III (>14 years). Group II surpassed the knowledge of denture removal during sleep, cleaning after every meal, and storing in personalized air-tight containers (p = 0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively). The majority from group II recommended plain saline as the material for oral hygiene maintenance in ICU patients (p = 0.008). Group III predominantly practiced the ideal handwashing technique pre- and post-patient contact which was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion: This study observed that a knowledge gap exists among the nurses of the three institutes across India pertaining to the oral hygiene care of ICU patients. Nurse's education and implementation of the proper oral hygiene measures for intubated patients in ICU setup is an essential need.

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Original Article

Rahil Singh, Anju Romina Bhalotra, Shubhangi Sharma

Audit on Practices of Endotracheal Suctioning in Intensive Care Unit Patients among Health Care Workers (HCWs)

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:58 - 65]

Keywords: Critical care, Endotracheal suctioning, Intensive care unit

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24615  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most frequently performed invasive procedures in intensive care units (ICUs). This audit was aimed at studying current practices and knowledge regarding ETS in the Indian critical care setup, with the background aim of raising awareness regarding correct practices as per current recommendations in critically ill patients. Materials and methods: After registering the trial with the clinical trial registry, India, a structured audit questionnaire containing 20 questions pertaining to ETS was distributed through electronic media among resident doctors working in the ICUs across India. Responses received were statistically analyzed. Results: The questionnaire was sent to 530 clinicians, of which only 200 (37.73%) responded. The audit revealed that only 22% respondents set the maximum negative pressure every time before suctioning, on the suction apparatus and only 32% said they would choose a catheter size of less than half the internal diameter of the endotracheal tube (ETT). About 90% of the respondents did not routinely do any form of documentation of the ETS. Almost 72% of the responders opined that closed suction systems reduce the chances of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Only 46% of respondents thought that no solution should be routinely instilled in ETT during ETS. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness regarding frequency and technique of ETS, infection control and monitoring required during ETS. Institutional protocols should be in place to follow correct guidelines for performing ETS.

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BRIEF RESEARCH COMMUNICATION

Lalhming Sanga, Amita Jacob, Jonathan Arul Jeevan Jayakaran, Ramya Iyadurai

Clinical Profile and Predictors of Intensive Care Admission in Neonicotinoid Poisoning in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:66 - 69]

Keywords: Intensive care, Neonicotinoid, Outcomes, Pesticide poisoning

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24599  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objectives: Neonicotinoids are a newer class of pesticides that are believed to cause predominantly mild toxicity in humans. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of neonicotinoid poisoning and identify predictors of severe toxicity. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included all patients with neonicotinoid poisoning admitted to a Tertiary Care Center in India over an 18-year period. Clinical and laboratory features were compared against outcomes to identify predictors of the need for intensive care admission. Results: Twenty-eight patients were included in the study of which 28.6% had severe disease requiring ICU admission. A higher respiratory rate, blood lactate level, SOFA, and qSOFA scores as well as a lower Glasgow coma score at presentation predicted ICU admission. First-generation compounds and imidacloprid consumption were associated with longer ICU stays and a longer duration of invasive ventilation. Conclusion: Neonicotinoid compounds can cause significant toxicity with oral ingestion. Imidacloprid and other first-generation compounds were associated with more severe toxicity requiring intensive care. Simple clinical parameters assessed at presentation can be used to predict severe disease and the need for ICU care. Larger, prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

408

BRIEF RESEARCH COMMUNICATION

Supriya Sampley, Deepak Bhasin, Kavita Sekhri, Harpal Singh, Onkar Gupta

Effect of Aviptadil, a Novel Therapy, on Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Viral-related Severe ARDS: A Retrospective Observational Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:70 - 74]

Keywords: Aviptadil, Viral acute respiratory distress syndrome, Viral pneumonia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24594  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Dealing with life-threatening viral acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has always been challenging and with the recent COVID pandemic experience, there is still the need of newer therapies to alleviate mortality. Aviptadil, has shown significant beneficial results in COVID. We share our experience with this molecule by doing a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of this drug on clinical outcomes in viral-related ARDS patients. Materials and methods: In this study, all patients with severe viral-related ARDS received Aviptadil along with the conventional treatment. The oxygen saturation, SpO2/FiO2 (ratio of pulse oximetric saturation to fractional inspired oxygen) (S/F) ratio and PaO2/FiO2 (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen) (P/F) ratio, before and after completion of the drug were studied. Radiological clearance and time for complete recovery from respiratory failure was noted. All variables pre- and postadministration of the drug were compared. Results: A total of 68 patients with viral pneumonias were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and only 6 patients had severe ARDS, who received Aviptadil. The mean oxygen saturation significantly improved from 87.86% before the first Aviptadil dose to 93.43% post 3 days of infusion. Similarly, improvement was seen in PaO2 values from 54.32 to 68.4 posttherapy (p-value < 0.004). SpO2/FiO2 (ratio of pulse oximetric saturation to fractional inspired oxygen) ratio hiked from 149 to 336 at the end of the 3 days infusion (p-value < 0.003). RALE scoring system was used for radiological clearance and the mean change in the score was from 6.42 to 2.5 (p-value 0.00). The average length of stay in the ICU was 12.14 days. No adverse effects were noted. Conclusion: Aviptadil has shown to improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe viral-related ARDS without any adverse effects.

1,344

PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Duygu Demiroz, Yusuf Ziya Colak, Oya Olcay Ozdes, Muharrem Ucar, Mehmet Ali Erdogan, Hüseyin Ilksen Toprak, Serdar Karakas, Sevgi Demiroz Tasolar, Cemalettin Aydın, Ilknur Varol

Incidence and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Liver Transplant Patients: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:75 - 79]

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Liver transplantation, Pediatric transplantation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24616  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) significantly contributes to the mortality and morbidity rates among pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients. Objective: Our study aimed to assess the potential factors contributing to AKI in pediatric LT patients and to analyze the impact of AKI on postoperative mortality and hospitalization duration. Materials and methods: About 235 pediatric LT patients under the age of 18 between the years 2015 and 2021 were evaluated retrospectively. The relationship between preoperative and intraoperative variables of the patients and AKI developed when the early postoperatıve period was assessed. Results: A correlation was found between the patients’ preoperative age, albumin levels, and AKI. AKI was found to be associated with the duration of surgery and intraoperative blood transfusion. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the severity of AKI in pediatric LT patients is linked to extended surgical durations and increased blood transfusions resulting from hemodynamically compromised blood loss. Furthermore, independent risk factors for AKI were identified as prolonged warm ischemia and the overall duration of the operation.

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Arya Kannancheeri, Sohan Lal Solanki, Mufaddal Kazi, Avanish Saklani

Postoperative Hyperbilirubinemia and Acute Liver Dysfunction after Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:80 - 81]

Keywords: Acute liver failure, Cytoreduction, Hyperbilirubinemia, Hyperthermic chemotherapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24598  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

360

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Sulagna Bhattacharjee, Mrudula Prasanna, Souvik Maitra, Bikash Ranjan Ray

Lung Ultrasound Findings in a Patient with Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:82 - 83]

Keywords: Breast cancer, Lung ultrasound, Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24597  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

320

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Pradeep Bajad, Sourabh Pahuja, Satyam Agarwal, Arjun Khanna

Swiss Cheese Trachea: An Unwarranted, Unique Form of Post-intubation Tracheal Stenosis

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:84 - 85]

Keywords: Bronchoscopy, Tracheal stenosis, Tracheostomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24611  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

308

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Transient Locked-in Syndrome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Bleeding due to Spasm Hypoxemia?

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:86 - 86]

Keywords: Cerebral aneurysm, Locked-in syndrome, Subarachnoid bleeding, SARS-CoV-2 infection, Small fiber neuropathy, Ventricular drainage

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24590  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

327

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Balaji Vaithialingam, Swaroop Gopal, Dheeraj Masapu

Author Response

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:87 - 88]

Keywords: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, Basilar artery, Locked in state

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24602  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

264

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Varun M Angadi

Methylene Blue in Septic Shock—A Novel Weapon in Our Arsenal: Are Utility Studies Highlighting its Futility?

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:89 - 89]

Keywords: Cryptic shock, Lactate clearance, Methylene blue, Microcirculation, Septic shock

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24589  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

507

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi, Batsalya Arjyal

Author Response

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:28] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:90 - 91]

Keywords: Critical analysis, Lactate clearance, Methylene blue, Refractory shock

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24605  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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